https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/issue/feed Pakistan BioMedical Journal 2024-02-10T12:33:28+00:00 Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob submissions@pakistanbmj.com Open Journal Systems <p>Title of Journal: <strong>Pakistan Biomedical Journal (ISSN Online: 2709-2798, Print: 2709-278X)</strong></p> <p>Frequency: <strong>Monthly</strong></p> <p>Affiliated with: <strong>Lahore Medical Research Center</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 746-A, Kashmir Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p>Published By: <strong>CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href="http://www.clip.com.pk">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Description:</strong></p> <p><strong>Pakistan BioMedical Journal (PBMJ)</strong> is an Official Journal of "<strong>Lahore Medical Research Center LLP" (LMRC)</strong> and is being funded and supported by Lahore Medical Research Center LLP (LMRC). Pakistan Biomedical Journal (PBMJ) is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that publishes in all fields of health, allied health and biomedical sciences for an internationally diverse authorship. Clinical studies, clinical trials, population studies, public health, discovery medicine, study of microbes, molecular and cellular biology, basic mechanisms of biology, genetics, cancer biology, molecular medicine, pharmacology, virology, chemical biology, immunobiology, chemical biology, physiological and pathological studies are within the scope of journal.<br />A highly-cited, multi-disciplinary, international editorial board assures timely publication of manuscripts. Reviews on latest advancements in biomedical sciences</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 35000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version: Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Submission are welcome and may be submitted here. </span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="mailto:submissions@pakistanbmj.com">submissions@pakistanbmj.com</a></p> https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1022 Assessment of Class Room Anxiety Among Nursing Students at Private Nursing Institute, Karachi, Pakistan 2024-02-01T12:32:22+00:00 Haq Nawaz 1@gmail.com Afsha Bibi fawad52005@gmail.com . Fazlullah 1@gmail.com Furqan Ahmad 1@gmail.com Muhammad Younus 1@gmail.com Imran Nazir 1@gmail.com Said Zada 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW67236465 BCX0">Class room</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0"> anxiety, stemming from academic pressure and fear of evaluation, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">impacts</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0"> students' well-being and academic performance, underscoring the necessity for supportive learning environments. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">Objective</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">: To assess the </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW67236465 BCX0">Class room</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0"> anxiety level among nursing studen</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">ts. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">Methods</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">: This cross-sectional study was undertaken at a private nursing institute in Karachi, Pakistan, from November 2023 to January 2024. Utilizing a convenient sampling technique, the study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">comprised</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0"> one hundred twenty student participants. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0"> The study's demographics reveal that 91.7% (n=110) of participants are aged 18-24, with a male majority of 83.3% (n=100). In terms of education year, 26.7% (n=32) are in the first year, 37.5% (n=45) in the third year, and 30.8% (n=37) in the fourth year. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">Regarding </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW67236465 BCX0">Class room</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0"> anxiety, 7.5% (n=8) </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">exhibited</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0"> normal levels, 26.7% (n=32) showed mild to moderate anxiety, 55.0% (n=66) experienced severe anxiety, and 10.8% (n=13) reported extreme anxiety. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0"> This underscores the urgent need for targeted i</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW67236465 BCX0">nterventions in educational settings and emphasizes the ongoing importance of researching contributing factors for effective strategies to promote a healthier learning experience.</span></span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1021 Explore the Association of Anger with Academic Year Among Nursing Students at Private Nursing Institute Karachi Pakistan 2024-02-01T12:32:32+00:00 Afsha Bibi fawad52005@gmail.com Fazal Khaliq 1@gmail.com Muhammad Ishaq 1@gmail.com Hammad Ahmad 1@gmail.com Hafiz Asim Rasool 1@gmail.com Saqib Mahmood 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">Anger among nursing students can stem from various sources, considering the demanding nature of their education and future profession</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">To explore the association of anger with academic year among nursing students at a private nursing institute in Karachi, Pakistan. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0"> This cross-sectional study was conducted at Horizon School of Nursing and Health Sciences: 128 nursing </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">students were recruited through convenient sampling. Nursing students enrolled in various academic years were included. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">Result</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0"> The study findings revealed that the participants are </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">predominantly male</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">, making up 85.6% of the sample, while females </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">represen</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">t</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0"> 14.4%. Moreover, the findings revealed that the mean anger score is calculated at 28.8366, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">indicating</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0"> the average level of anger reported by nursing students. The findings also include p-values, highlighting significant differences in academic years (p =</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0"> 0.016) but not in gender (p = 0.156) or age groups (p = 0.440). The study found average anger levels among nursing students (28.8366). Academic years showed significant differences in anger (p = 0.016), while gender (p = 0.156) and age (p = 0.440) did not</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW228353936 BCX0">Tailored support for specific program stages could enhance student well-being.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW228353936 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1020 Frequency of Burnout and its Factors among Nurses Working at Tertiary Care Hospital Lahore 2024-02-01T12:32:43+00:00 Zahida Perveen zahida96perveen@gmail.com . Raja raja.khatri@zu.edu.pk . Badil badil@duhs.edu.pk <p><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0">Nurses experience a high rate of burnout, which may </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0">be</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0"> attributed to the physically and mentally exhausting profession. Consequently, it leads to a decrease in the quality of care. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0">Objectives:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0"> The present study was employed to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0"> the frequency of burnout and its contributing factors among nurses. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0"> A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Mayo Hospital, Lahore. Both male and female nurses and at least one year of job experience were included in the study. Nurses who were working in management posts were excluded from the study. A self-administered, pre-tested, and validated questionnaire “Copenhagen Burnout Inventory” was used to assess burnout. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0"> Most of the nurses reported moderate levels of personal, professional, and client-related burnout. Gender was significantly and negatively associated with emotional burnout (β -.182; p=0.004), and rotation of duty was also found to be significantly and negatively related to personal burnout (β -0.271; p˂0.01) among nurses. Similarly, work-related burnout, gender (β -0.198; p=0.002), and rotation (β -0.175 p=0.006) were found to be negatively and significantly associated with burnout, while duty shift was significantly positively (β=0.169; p=0.010) related to work-related burnout. Age was positively associated (β=0.096; p=0.029) with client-related burnout, while residence (β -0.17; p=0.022, and rotation (β -0.617; p=0.004) were found to be negatively and significantly associated with client-related burnout. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW81318356 BCX0"> A high frequency of burnout was recorded among study participants. The long duty shifts and rotations had a significant impact on nurses' burnout in the present study. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW81318356 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;134245417&quot;:false,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1012 Investigating the Satisfaction of Students within Public Sector and Private Sector Medical Colleges: An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan 2024-02-01T12:32:52+00:00 Sobia Haris 1@gmail.com Sana Khan 2@gmail.com Syeda Saima Qamar Naqvi 2@gmail.com Muhammad Haris dx_harris@hotmail.com Farah Deeba 4@gmail.com Muhammad Jehangir Khan 5@gmail.com <p>Medical education is a highly regarded career choice among the majority of students in Pakistan. A significant number of students enroll in medical colleges in Pakistan with the aim of serving humanity, obtaining social and financial advantages, and fulfilling their parents' desire to see them become doctors. In that respect the consideration of student satisfaction is important in relation to effectiveness within their performance as well. <strong>Objective:</strong> To analyze the satisfaction level for the students within the public and private sector medical colleges in Pakistan. <strong>Methods: </strong>he semi-structured interviews were selected for the current research. The interviews provided the expressive possibility towards collecting efficient data in from of opinions and experiences from 5 medical students enrolled in the public sector medical colleges and 5 medical students from private sector medical colleges in Pakistan. <strong>Results:</strong> The research highlighted that on the main consideration there were different types of issues which are influencing the satisfaction of students within different considerations and backgrounds from the medical sector. The teacher perception, way of teaching and the aligned developments in relation to better consideration here were related to the specified orientation for the structure of transformative development in relation to the satisfaction of students.<strong> Conclusions: </strong>On a concluding note, it can be said that the students in private and public medical colleges in Pakistan has satisfaction issues. However, the teacher support and facility have the possibility to enhance satisfaction</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/21-27 Gender and Social Determinants of Health: A Mixed Method Study in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 2024-02-01T12:33:01+00:00 Syed Babar Ali babarali20@hsa.edu.pk Javeria Saleem javeria.hasan@hotmail.com Muhammad Ishaq ishaq.iscs@pu.edu.pk . Shaista 1@gmail.com Muhammad Adil Shah 1@gmail.com Hafiz Waqas Ahmad 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">Gender is recognized as a fundamental social determinant within the overarching framework of the World Health Organization's Social Determinants of Health (SDH). It is conceptualized as </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">a central factor</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0"> influencing population health and contributing to health inequalities. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">To investigate disparities based on gender in the social determinants of health and assess gender inequities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">Methods:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">A mixed-methods approach, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">comprising</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0"> both a survey and an exploratory qualitative study, was employed at Mardan Medical Complex Hospital in Mardan. A total of 10 interviews were conducted with healthcare workers (HCWs), and the study included 210 patients. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0"> Out of the 210 patients, the majority were female (107/210, 51%), while 103/210 (49%) were male. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">80 out of 103 (77%) females were </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW28918385 BCX0">house wives</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">. More female (30 out of 103) is illiterate than male (21 out of 107) in the study participants, men (25 out of 107) are more educated in the secondary and higher education than women (16 out of 103). Women have high literacy level in religious education (12 out of 103). Women (25 out of 103) are more prone to partner’s verbally or physical aggression than men (15 out of 107). Among female patients, predominant challenges encompass domestic concerns, experiences of violence and abuse, a deficit of trust, and socio-cultural barriers. In contrast, a prevalent social determinant of health for males was identified as </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">financial responsibility</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">, contributing to a notable incidence of mental health illnesses</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW28918385 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW28918385 BCX0">In conclusion, the study sheds light on significant gender-based disparities in social determinants of health (SDH) and their profound impact on the well-being of individuals.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW28918385 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/999 Factors Associated with Perceived Insecurity in Burn Injuries: An Exploratory Study of Burn Survivors in Lahore 2024-02-01T12:33:10+00:00 Abia Nazim abianazim@fccollege.edu.pk Komal Alvi 20-41018@formanite.fccollege.edu.pk Elizabeth Schwaiger elizabethschwaiger@fccollege.edu.pk Tauqeer Nazim tauqeernaazim@gmail.com Ivan Suneel Samuel ivansuneel@fccollege.edu.pk Kiran Ishfaq kiranishfaq@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">Burn injuries identified as a serious public health concern with high morbidity and mortality rate every year. Burn injuries are usually linked with heightened economic, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">social</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> and psychological burden for causing functional impairments, social stigma, rejection and decreased social integration along with high morbidity of psychological disorders. Researchers have found various psychological phenomena </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">impacting</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> the recovery and effectiveness of rehabilitation of burn survivors including perceived insecurity in burn survivors. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">Present study was extracted from a larger study and aimed to explore the perceived insecurity of burn survivors seeking treatment in Lahore and to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">identify</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> factors associated with it. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> The study followed a cross sectional research design to study 150 burn survivors with mean age of 36 years and including both men (39%) and women (61%). </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">The results revealed that female gender, single relationship status, age and education were significantly correlated with </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">perception</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> of insecurity in burn injury survivors. Gender and burn injury type were associated with significantly </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">different levels</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> of perceived insecurity in the present sample of burn survivors. The findings were discussed </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW133747973 BCX0">in light of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> broader research context. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> Demographic variables and type of burn injury relate differently with perceived insecurity among burn survivors</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW133747973 BCX0"> </span></span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1025 Clinical Inertia in Terms of Recurrent Hospitalization in the Treatment of Heart Failure Between General Physicians and Cardiologists 2024-02-02T12:32:26+00:00 Kaleem Ullah Shaikh kshaikh72@gmail.com Abeer Sarfaraz abeer_sana@hotmail.com Sana Sarfaraz sana.sarfraz@live.com Muhammad Wasiq Anwar wasiq_anwar@live.com Falaknaz Salari falak.naz@lnh.edu.pk Faryal Fatima faryal.fatima@lnh.edu.pk <p><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">Cardiologists are more likely to use clinical guideline-supported therapies than general physicians, a fact that has been shown to reduce readmissions. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">To compare the intensification of heart failure treatment and its course with re-hospitalization among general physicians and cardiologists at a tertiary care hospital. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">Methodology:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the cardiology inpatient department of a tertiary care hospital from June 2023 to December 2023 for six months. All patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were included</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">. The treatment prescriptions that they had been followed before the event were noted along with the fact that whether they were treated by a cardiologist or a general physician, and their compliance with medical treatment was recorded. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">Frequencies and percentages were computed for qualitative variables. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">A statistically significant association of re-admission was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> among cardiologists (</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">1.40 ± 0.57)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> compared to general physicians (2.54 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">± 0.57; </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">p&lt;0.001). Almost </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">100% of cardiologists </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">advised</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> beta blockers as compared to their prescription by 42% of general physicians. All cardiologists </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">advised</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> ARBS/ACE inhibitors as compared to 58% of general physicians. 90% of cardiologists </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">advised</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> aldosterone receptor antagonists as compared to 10% of general physicians. Only 12% of cardiologists </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">advised</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> SGLT-2 inhibitors as compared to 88% of physicians. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">Overall, 36</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">% of cardiologists </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">recommended</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> guideline-mediated therapy while 12% of general physicians </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">recommended</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0"> guideline-mediated therapy. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">Cardiologist care is significantly associated with reduced re-admissions among patients re-admitted after heart failure treatment</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW134787274 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW134787274 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1032 Effect of Intracameral Moxifloxacin on Endothelial Cell Count and Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis After Cataract Surgery 2024-02-03T12:32:28+00:00 Sara Riaz 1@gmail.com Sana Jahangir 1@gmail.com Uzma Hamza druhamza@gmail.com Irum Raza 1@gmail.com Aamna Jabran 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">One of the most feared side effects of contemporary cataract surgery is still </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">endophthalmitis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">. Prophylactic measures include the use of antibiotics: topical, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">subconjunctival</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">, and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">intracameral</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">, to avoid </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">endophthalmitis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">Moxifloxacin</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> 0.5% has been used most </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">frequently</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> in preventive late-stage regimens. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">ascertain</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> how well </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">moxifloxacin</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> prevented </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">endophthalmitis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> in patients having cataract surgery. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">This was a descriptive case study and was conducted at </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">Eye Departments of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">Allama</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> Iqbal Medical College, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore and Ameer-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW191378569 BCX0">ud</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">-Din Medical College, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore. The study was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">commenced</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> after approval of the synopsis and completed in 6 months. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">In this study, 23.75%(n=1</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">9) were between 40-50 years, 61.25%(n=49) between 51-60 years and 15%(n=12) had &gt;60 years of age, and their average was calculated as 53.99</span></span><span class="TextRun Underlined SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">+</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">6.22 years. 58.76%(n=47) were males and 41.25%(n=33) were females in the study. Mean endothelial cell count before c</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">ataract surgery was calculated as 2776 </span></span><span class="TextRun Underlined SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">+</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">177 while post-operative the average endothelial count was calculated as 2424 </span></span><span class="TextRun Underlined SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">+</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">72.8. while the frequency of effect of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">moxifloxacin</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">, in the prevention of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">endophthalmitis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> in patients undergoing cataract surgery was rec</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">orded as 22.5%(n=18) while 77.5%(n=62) had no effect of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">moxifloxacin</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> while preventing </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">endophthalmitis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> in patients undergoing cataract surgery. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">We conclude that the effect of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">moxifloxacin</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">, in preventing </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">endophthalmitis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> in patients undergoing ph</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">acoemulsification surgery is not significantly higher and may be used in our setup for prevention of </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">endophthalmitis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">, being a risk factor for blindness. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">Moxifloxacin</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0"> does not affect the corneal endothelial cells significantly</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW191378569 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW191378569 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6}"> </span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1016 Social Support, Social Isolation, And Quality of Life Among Patients with Hepatitis A, B, And C 2024-02-03T12:32:37+00:00 Hina Imran 1@gmail.com Maria Ghulam Nabi 1@gmail.com Sanober Khanum 1@gmail.com Mafia Shahzadi mafiashahzadi62@gmail.com Aqila Unbrin 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">Hepatitis is a group of viral infections that affect the health and social life of an individual. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">o explore the association and the role of perceived social support, and social isolation, and their impact on quality of life among patients who have hepatitis type A, B, and C</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">A total of 500 participants were taken from the different areas urban and rural areas of Faisalabad</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">The participant’s age ranges were between 18 to 55 years. The sample consisted of married participants (n=355, 71%) and unmarried were (n=145, 29%). A further sample was classified into hepatitis A (n=50, 10%), B (n=225, 45%), and C (n=225, 45%)</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">A purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data. The following measures were used to assess the findings i.e., Demographic Form, Social Disconnectedness Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF scale </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">was used to assess the quality of life</span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">.</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">The analyses reveal that patients with type C of Hepatitis are significantly different on the Social Disconnectedness Scale and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">the subscales of friends and family are significantly different on the Multidimensional Perceived Social. Furthermore, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">Analysis of Variance showed that there was a significant difference on each subscale of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF among patients with Hepatitis A, B and C [ p&lt;0.01]</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0">It</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0"> was</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW264740384 BCX0"> concluded that social isolation negatively influences patient’s quality of life, the social support plays a vital role in improving patients’ quality of life.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW264740384 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:276}"> </span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1019 Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Physically Disabled People 2024-02-04T12:32:38+00:00 Faiza Tahir alitahir436@yahoo.com Ebad ur Rehman Khan Ghouri ebadghouri@yahoo.com Muneeba Aziz muneeba.20786@gmail.com Lubna Sultan Ali lubna.sultan2@gmail.com Syeda Aqsa Waseem aqsa_waseem24@live.com Ghulam Fatima fatimapiya906@gmail.com Syeda Rida Baqir dr_rida91@yahoo.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">Physically disabled people are only </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0"> by their physical functioning where studies showed that their cognitive functioning has </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">generally been</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0"> ignored. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychological health condition where the people having this dis</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">order cannot accept their flaws or impairment. The prevalence of this disorder is approximately 2% of the population worldwide. The Quality of life is suppressed who are suffering from this disorder. To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">maintain</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0"> their </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">quality-of-life</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0"> people engage in diffe</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">rent physical activities and exercises which help them to overcome problems and they can easily take part in activities of daily living.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">identify</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0"> the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among physically disabled persons.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">The durat</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">ion of the study was six months (January 2023 to July 2023) with a sample size of 139 calculated from online </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">open</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">-Epi version 3. Non-probability sampling technique was used for this study. Data w</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">ere </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">collected from three tertiary care hospitals by using a </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">validated questionnaire appearance anxiety inventory scoring. The data w</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">ere</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0"> analyzed by SPSS 23.0 software.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">The results extracted </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW146630277 BCX0">through the use of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0"> anxiety appearance inventory score was; out of 139 participants, the body dysmorphic disorder was </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">found to be present in 38 participants and absent in 101 participants which </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">constituted</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0"> 27.3% and 72.7% respectively</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">Body dysmorphic disorder was found in physically disabled patients but persons attending physiotherapy sessions had improved </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW146630277 BCX0">and accepted their condition.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW146630277 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1023 Prevalence and Stratification of Polyvascular Disease in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study at Mayo Hospital, Lahore 2024-02-10T12:33:28+00:00 Muhammad Afzal Ali 1@gmail.com Ayesha Tariq ayeshasaqlain2@gmail.com Muhammad Arslan Aslam 1@gmail.com Waseem Ahmed 1@gmail.com Ali Saqlain Haider 1@gmail.com Asma Sharif 1@gmail.com <p>Polyvascular Disease, that encompasses peripheral artery disease and cerebrovascular disease, has gained prominence due to expanded clinical focus and research, primarily driven by its association with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) like myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, and ischemic stroke. Objective: To determine the patients of PVD in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed and conducted at Department of Cardiology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. between August 3, 2022 and February 2, 2023. 183 patients with AMI of either gender, age above 25 years and up to 80 years were included. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 25.0. Results: Our study reported PVD in 57.4% of the patients with AMI. According to the stratification of PVD with numerous variables, notable variations emerged concerning age and symptom duration (p&lt;0.05), whereas gender, BMI, type of AMI, and socio-economic status showed insignificant differences. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that the PVD was highly prevalent among patients with AMI.</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1026 Biosensors Precision in Healthcare: A Scientific Odyssey 2024-02-01T12:32:13+00:00 Khizar Hayat ophthalmologist786@gmail.com <p>Biosensors have been the beacon of precision in the ever-evolving landscape of health care and offer a profound impact on diagnostics and patient care. These devices are designed to detect specific biological markers and convert then into measurable signals, seamlessly blending biology with cutting-edge technology. The diverse tapestry of biosensors encompass enzyme based sensors, immuno-assays, photo-biosensors, tissue-based sensors, DNA biosensors and nano-biosensors. Enzyme-based biosensors showcase unparalleled catalytic precision exemplified by glucose biosensors. Glucose oxidase serves as the biological catalyst and converts glucose into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Electrodes of the sensor then transduce this reaction into measurable signals which enables the precise quantification of glucose levels in diabetes management. Similarly,&nbsp; immunoassays rely on the specificity of antigen-antibody interactions. Most widely used immunoassay, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) exemplify this category, which finds applications in a number of diagnostics and provide a window into immunological responses and diseases such as HIV. Advancing the field of biosensing are the photobiosensors which utilize diverse technologies such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to illuminate biological processes. Genetically encoded biosensors that employ proteins like green fluorescent protein (GFP), enable non-invasive monitoring of cellular dynamics and offer real-time insights. Another cateogory, tissue-based biosensors converge the technology with the physiological environments. For instance, implantable glucose sensors that continuously monitor blood glucose concentrations and provide real-time data for personalized treatment approaches. At the core of precision diagnostics lie DNA biosensors such as DNA microarrays. They offer parallel analysis of gen expression, influencing decisions in cancer diagnostics and pharmacogenomics. Nanobiosensors, represented by nanoparticle-based sensors, navigate the nano-frontiers with exceptional sensitivity. For example, quantum dots exhibit unique optical properties for sensitive detection. Likewise, gold nanoparticles based biosensors enable real-time monitoring of drug release in drug delivery systems and emphasize their role in precision medicine. As biosensors advance, ethical considerations come to the forefront. Issues such as data privacy, consent, and equitable access to these technologies demand careful attention. It becomes imperative to ensure that biosensors are developed and deployed responsibly with a keen awareness of potential societal implications in navigating the ethical landscape. In the symphony of precision that biosensors bring to healthcare, their types and applications reflect not only technological prowess but also the ethical responsibility inherent in their development and deployment. As these devices continue to evolve, the healthcare landscape stands on the brink of a new era, where precision and ethics intertwine for the betterment of patient outcomes.</p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1027 Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in Pakistan – A Systematic Review 2024-02-07T12:33:17+00:00 Yasir Akbar Jamali yasirakbar021@gmail.com Hajira Naila Rahu 1@gmail.com Ashoke Kumar 1@gmail.com Ali Bux Khuhro 1@gmail.com Abdul Sami Shaikh 1@gmail.com Sanam Soomro 1@gmail.com <p><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">Numerous epidemiological investigations </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">pertaining to</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> Parkinson's disease (PD) have been carried out on a global scale </span><span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW263129781 BCX0">during the course of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> time. While each research documented an increase in the fr</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">equency and incidence rate of PD as individuals age, there were variations in the overall estimations seen across various nations. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> The purpose of this study is to provide a thorough analysis of PD incidence and prevalence rates in Pakistan. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">Meth</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">ods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> Google Scholar, Medline, and Embase were used to look for studies which reported the incidence of PD around the world. The searches were limited to English-language studies about people that happened between 1965 to 2023. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> A total of 7 studies</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> were conducted on Parkinson’s disease in Pakistan. Muhammad Tufail et al. in a cross-sectional study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">observed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> a heightened prevalence of Parkinson's disease, with 600 patients </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">identified</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). In a cross-sectional study conducted in</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> Lahore, 85 cases of PD were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">identified</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> within a hospital setting. Fifty cases in a cross-sectional study were conducted at a Hospital in Rawalpindi. Saira et al. performed an observational study at Islamabad Hospital and found the prevalence of We estimat</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">ed the overall frequency of PD in Pakistan was 1016 cases in this systematic review. Males were more diagnosed with PD as compared to females. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> The data from the studies reviewed here </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">indicate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> that PD increased in Pakistan during the last decad</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">e. While males were dominant in this study which is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0">not different from</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW263129781 BCX0"> across the globe.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW263129781 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> 2024-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal