Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj <p>Title of Journal: <strong>Pakistan Biomedical Journal (ISSN Online: 2709-2798, Print: 2709-278X)</strong></p> <p>Frequency: <strong>Monthly</strong></p> <p>Affiliated with: <strong>Lahore Medical Research Center</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href="http://www.lmrc.com.pk">www.lmrc.com.pk</a>)</p> <p>Published By: <strong>CrossLinks International Publishers (CLIP), Lahore, Pakistan</strong></p> <p><strong>Website: (</strong><a href="http://www.clip.com.pk">www.clip.com.pk</a>)</p> <p><strong>Address:</strong> 590-Karim Block, Allama Iqbal Town, Lahore, Pakistan</p> <p><strong>Description:</strong></p> <p><strong>Pakistan BioMedical Journal (PBMJ)</strong> is an Official Journal of "<strong>Lahore Medical Research Center LLP" (LMRC)</strong> and is being funded and supported by Lahore Medical Research Center LLP (LMRC). Pakistan Biomedical Journal (PBMJ) is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal that publishes in all fields of health, allied health and biomedical sciences for an internationally diverse authorship. Clinical studies, clinical trials, population studies, public health, discovery medicine, study of microbes, molecular and cellular biology, basic mechanisms of biology, genetics, cancer biology, molecular medicine, pharmacology, virology, chemical biology, immunobiology, chemical biology, physiological and pathological studies are within the scope of journal.<br />A highly-cited, multi-disciplinary, international editorial board assures timely publication of manuscripts. Reviews on latest advancements in biomedical sciences</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Accreditation:</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Approved by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for the year 2023-24</strong></p> <p><strong>Fee &amp; Subscription Charges</strong></p> <p>Article Processing Fee: <strong>NONE</strong></p> <p>Article Publication Fee (National) Rs 35000 / Article</p> <p>Article Publication Fee (International ) 200 USD / Article</p> <p>Printed Version ((Selected Articles on Authors Request): Rs 2500/per copy</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Annual Subscription for Printed Versions</strong></span></p> <p>For Institutes: Rs 20,000/ Annually</p> <p>Single Copy (Selected Articles): Rs 2500/-</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Waiver Policy</strong></span></p> <p>If an author has no funds to pay such charges, he may request for full or partial waiver of publication fees. The decision may however vary from case to case.</p> <p>We do not want charges to prevent the publication of worthy material.</p> <p><strong><u>Submissions</u></strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Submission are welcome and may be submitted here. </span><a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" href="mailto:submissions@pakistanbmj.com">submissions@pakistanbmj.com</a></p> en-US <p>This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments <a href="mailto:editor@pakistanbmj.com">editor@pakistanbmj.com</a></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> submissions@pakistanbmj.com (Prof. Dr. Riffat Mehboob) oric@lmrc.com.pk (Khurram Mehboob) Sun, 31 Mar 2024 20:12:41 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.7 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Evaluation of Anticoagulant Effect of Alum in Rats https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1046 <p>Potassium aluminium sulfate, KAl(SO4)<sub>2,</sub> also called Alum, is an acidic white chemical substance. The role of alum in bleeding and clotting is not fully understood. <strong>Objective:</strong> To determine the effects of alum on clotting time, D-dimer levels, fasting blood glucose level, and lipid profile. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was conducted on 24 male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into six groups. Four groups were given different concentrations of alum solutions. The remaining two groups received warfarin, and distilled water, which are control, and placebo groups, respectively. Blood tests such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), D-dimers, clotting time, and lipid profile were performed. <strong>Results: </strong>The study found that the administration of alum prolonged the time it took for blood to coagulate. Alum showed a dose dependent increase in clotting time when compared to the warfarin-control group and group 4 (100 mg/kg alum dose) showed the most significant effect. Similarly, in the case of D-dimers, a dose dependent decrease in the level of D-dimers was seen and the most significant effect was found for high concentration. The plasma blood glucose and lipid level of animals treated with alum did not show any significant effect as compared to placebo. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The efficacy of alum as an anticoagulant drug was investigated, and it was found to significantly prolong clotting time while simultaneously reducing the level of D-dimers. Furthermore, it was deemed safe and showed no effects on fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. The safety profile of alum was assessed to be favorable, thus highlighting its potential as an anticoagulant drug of the future</p> Muhammad Hassan Ali Khan, Ghazala Bibi, Hira Siyar, Haji Bahadar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1046 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Spectrum of Hemoglobinopathies in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1051 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">Hemoglobinopathies, including Thalassemia and sickle-cell syndromes are lifelong diseases with a significant impact on patients, families, and healthcare resources. Despite therapeutic progress, Pakistan, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">located</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0"> within the Thalassemia belt, lacks comprehensive data on the epidemiology, clinical course, mortality, complications, and treatment outcomes of Thalassemia. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">Objective: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0"> the frequency of haemoglobinopathies in Tertiary Care Hospital of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">A retrospective cross-sectional study of 7 months was conducted on the local population of Islamabad and Rawalpindi from January 2020 to July 2020. Total 600 patients referred for Hb electrophoresis were initially selected for study. Data from 300 patients were collected from PIMS Hospital, Islamabad, and 300 from Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi. Clinical information for each patient was recorded separately, data were statistically analyzed using Microsoft Excel version 2016 and graphs were made on GraphPad Prism version 08. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="none"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">Out of 600 patients from Rawalpindi and Islamabad 227 (37.84%) patients were found to have hemoglobinopathies. Beta Thalassemia trait was the most common disorder among those with hemoglobinopathies (47.13%), followed by beta Thalassemia major (23.34%), sickle Beta Thalassemia (10.57%), sickle cell disease (6.6%), Hb D trait (5.28%), Hb D/beta Thalassemia (3.96%), Hb E trait (2.2%), and sickle cell trait (0.88%).</span></span> <span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">The study showed a significantly high frequency of hemoglobinopathies in the capital city </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0">Islamabad and Rawalpindi. β- Thalassemia</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0"> trait and β- Thalassemia major </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW225322352 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW225322352 BCX0"> found in high frequency among various hemoglobin disorders.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW225322352 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Tanveer Ul Haq Zia, Ammar Ahmed, Muhammad Ilyas, Hira Siyar, Haji Bahadar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1051 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Academic and Workplace Buoyancy and its Association with Demographic Variables among Health Sciences’ Undergraduates https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1047 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Academic buoyancy </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">important </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">for</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> influencing</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">students’ ability to face academic challenges. It </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">describes learner</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">s’ </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">ability </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">defeat </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">academic</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-GB" xml:lang="EN-GB" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> difficulties</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">It </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">is </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">an important factor</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> on the psycho-educational landscape </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">assisting</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> students </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">experiencing</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">setbacks. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Clinical/w</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">orkplace buoyancy can help </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">health sciences’ students </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">to face the challenges in error-prone learning atmosphere.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Objective</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">: To assess the level of academic and workplace buoyancy and its association with demographic variables among health sciences</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">’ </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">undergraduates.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Method</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Analytical cross-sectional research</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">with convenient sampling was c</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">arried out</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> on 2</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">22</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> undergraduates of Sohail University, Karachi</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Ethical approval was taken from the ERC</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">,</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> Sohail University. </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Data w</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">ere</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> collected through Academic </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Buoyancy Scale</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">B</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">y using SPSS </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">V</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">ersion</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">25</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">.0</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">, the data were analyzed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">. Descriptive statistics </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">were </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW250402018 BCX0">calculated</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">and Chi-square was applied to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">observe</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> the association of buoyancy with demographic variables.</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">In this study, most</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">ly</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> participants (98.6%) belong to the age 22-24 years. </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Over 50% of the partakers </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">(55.9%) were females</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> </span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">All items of workplace and academic buoyancy had a significant association with study program (p-value 0.000, 0.010,0.002,0.021 </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">respectively) while</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> only 2 items show</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">ed</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> significant association with study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">year </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">(p-value 0.012 and 0.028). There was no significant association of buoyancy with variables </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">like</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> age, gender, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">religion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> and marital status. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> Th</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">is study’s findings</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> highlighted</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> the buoyancy level</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> among </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">health sector undergraduates. The association of buoyancy was found significant with study program and some items with CGPA and study</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> year</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">. These findings </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">indicate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0">d</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW250402018 BCX0"> the need to enhance positive traits like buoyancy among health sector undergraduates.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW250402018 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Khalid Hussain, Tanseer Ahmed, Fasihul Wahab, Rooh ullah, Farhanda Nadir Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1047 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Neck Pain and Disability in Medical Students of Sialkot https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1056 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">Neck pain is a pervasive musculoskeletal disorder and one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. It ranks as the fourth most typical cause of disability. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">Objectives:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0"> To </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">determine</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0"> the prevalence of neck pain and disability in medical students of Sialkot. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0"> It was cross-sectional study and simple random sampling technique was used. 465 male/female medical student 18–25-year-old were </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">participated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">. Subjects with other neck pathologies like cervical stenosis were excluded. Data were collected from three different institutes of Sialkot i.e., University of Sialkot, Sialkot College of Physical Therapy and University of Management and Technology. Northwick Par</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">k Neck Pain Questionnaire was used to collect data. Study ran from 20 May to 22 September 2021.Statsitical analysis done through SPSS version 20. Histogram, bar charts used to display data. Ethical approval obtained from institute before conducting research. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0"> Results were calculated using Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) percentages. 15.9% had no disability, 58.1% had mild disability, and 19.4% had moderate disability while 6.7% were suffering from severe disability. The overall neck pai</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">n prevalence was 58.1% and it caused mild disability in medical students. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0">Conclusions:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW129342259 BCX0"> It is concluded that neck pain is quite common among medical students as more than half of participants were suffering from this issue. Lifting heavy objects being in uncomfortable posture during daily activities and reading for extended hours aggravate the pain. Occasional disturbance of sleep was also noted. </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW129342259 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Sadia Ghafoor, Rabia Faiz, . Ayesha, Aroma Pervaiz, Ayesha Yousaf, Habiba Basit, Anees Arshad, Sidra Ghias, Amna Khalid Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1056 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of Antenatal Care Services among Patients Presenting in Ayub Teaching Hospital https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/989 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">Regular use of antenatal care services during pregnancy has a positive impact on maternal and fetal health and serves as a tool to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">To assess </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">the</span> <span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">utilization</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> of antenatal care services among pregnant women at Ayub Teaching Hospital in Abbottabad, Pakistan. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">Methods:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> This descriptive study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Hospital in Abbottabad, KPK province, Pakistan. Data </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">were</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> collected on paper-based questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS. A total of 208 patients </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">participated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">Results:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> Key findings from the study </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">indicate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">d</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> that the average age o</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">f participants was 28 years</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">.</span> <span class="NormalTextRun AdvancedProofingIssueV2Themed SCXW178388719 BCX0">The majority of</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> women came from lower-middle-class </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">backgrounds. The</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> study also revealed a wide range of educational backgrounds among p</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">articipants.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> M</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">ost women had prior pregnancy exper</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">ience.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> The study found that a significant percentage of women </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">initiated</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> antenatal visits d</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">uring the first trimester </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">with </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">drop in visits during the third trimester. Understanding the reasons for seeking care is crucial, with various medical concerns and routine check-ups cited. Barriers to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">utilization</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> included lack of awareness, family issues, and geographical distance. Additionally, only 72% of women reported taking recommended s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">upplements during pregnancy. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">Conclusion</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">:</span> </span><span class="TextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">T</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">he s</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">tudy </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">identified</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> that women from middle income group with </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">previous</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> experience of pregnancy seek antenatal care in first trimester with various pregnancy </span><span class="NormalTextRun ContextualSpellingAndGrammarErrorV2Themed SCXW178388719 BCX0">problems</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> but visits were not consistent. Major reason for </span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">non-</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0">utilization</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> of services was unawareness about the services.</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW178388719 BCX0"> </span></span><span class="EOP SCXW178388719 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;134233279&quot;:true,&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Ansa Islam, Iram Sarwar, Azmat Ali Shah, Sana Khalid, Saima Bibi, Mujahid ul Islam Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/989 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens in Our Setup: Ear, Nose and Throat Perspective https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1058 <p><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">With a high prevalence of infections involving the ear, nose, and throat, and the occurrence of drug resistance the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens is of immense importance. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">Objective:</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0"> To determine the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of pathogenic bacteria isolated from representative infected areas of patients with ear, nose, and throat infections. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">Methods: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">This cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Outpatient Department (OPD), Capital Hospital Islamabad, over two years. The sample included 639 pathogenic bacterial culture specimens, grown from the representative infected ear, nose, or throat of patients who attended ENT outpatients of the hospital. The bacterial cultures were subjected to the standard disc agar diffusion method to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Data collected included the patient’s age, gender, area/ site of infection, bacterial pathogen isolated, and sensitivity to antibiotics. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">Results: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">The sample included 49.30% males and 50.70% females and mean age of 30.13±19.24 years. Gram-positive organisms were predominant </span></span><span class="TextRun Highlight SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">[n=441, (69.01%)]</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0"> with </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">Staphylococcus aureus</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0"> being the commonest isolate (67.92%) followed by </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">Pseudomonas spp</span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">. (26.13%). Gram-positive isolates were sensitive to </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW216225920 BCX0">Cefoperazone+Sulbactam</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">, Ceftazidime, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW216225920 BCX0">Cefoperazone</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">, Amikacin, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW216225920 BCX0">Pipercillin+Tazobactam</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">, Vancomycin, Gentamycin, Linezolid, Amoxicillin + Clavulanate, and Ceftriaxone with resistance to Cefixime, while the Gram-negative isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin and </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW216225920 BCX0">Meropenum</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Ceftazidime and highly resistant to Cefixime, Cefuroxime, </span><span class="NormalTextRun SpellingErrorV2Themed SCXW216225920 BCX0">Amoxicillin+Clavulanate</span><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0"> and Co-trimoxazole. </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">Conclusions: </span></span><span class="TextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0" lang="EN-US" xml:lang="EN-US" data-contrast="auto"><span class="NormalTextRun SCXW216225920 BCX0">Since ENT infections are predominated by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas spp. When unavoidable the empirical therapy should cover these pathogens, however culture and sensitivity studies are justified keeping in view the growing resistance to antimicrobials.</span></span><span class="EOP SCXW216225920 BCX0" data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335551550&quot;:6,&quot;335551620&quot;:6,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}"> </span></p> Ghulam Saqulain, jawwad Ahmed, Syed Ahsan Raza Naqvi, Nazia Imtiaz Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1058 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Maternal Stress and its Associated Factors among Working Nurses in Public Sector Tertiary Care Teaching Hospitals, Karachi https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1053 <p>Maternal stress has been identified as an epidemic that has a detrimental effect on work productivity and personal and professional growth. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To determine maternal stress and its associated factors among working nurses in public sector tertiary care teaching hospitals in Karachi, Sindh. <strong>Methods: </strong>The analytical cross-sectional study was accomplished at Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi and Dow University Hospital Karachi. A total of 131 nurses were approached by a convenient non-probability sampling method. The Parental Stress Scale was used for data collection. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 24.0. Chi-square test was applied out to find an association between maternal stress and associated factors. <strong>Results:</strong> Nurses reported 72 (55%) mild parental stress, 58 (44.3%) parental moderate stress, and 1 (1%) severe parental stress. Nurses belonging to the younger age group, widowed or divorced, had mild parental stress, while nurses who lived with their husbands had lesser moderate stress. Female participants with one child of either gender, whose more family members were earning, had less tendency to have mild parental stress. A statistically significant association was found between working nurses' parental stress level and age group (p-value=0.005). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was concluded that nurses reported mild, moderate, and severe maternal stress. Hence, it is increasingly imperative to create facilities like daycare centers and offer them the flexibility to perform their job effectively</p> Sharmeen Zulfiqar, Rubina Hafeez, . Badil, Husan Bano Channar , Ashok Kumar , Zahid Ali, Saran Chandio Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1053 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Vitamin E And Selenium as an Anti-Stressant in Translocation of Captive Ungulates https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1065 <p>Wild ungulates especially in captivity face high stress in translocation that may cause even mortality. Chemical immobilization is employed to minimize stress by using sedatives. Vitamin E and Selenium may have impact on reducing stress. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To estimate the impact of Vitamin E and Selenium treatment in translocation of captive ungulates. <strong>Methods:</strong> The study was carried out while planned translocation of 40 ungulates from different zoological gardens of four districts of Punjab to Safari Zoo, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan was performed. The animals were divided into two equal groups i.e., A and B. Both groups were anesthetized with combination of Ketamine and Xylazine while Vitamin E and Selenium was also injected in group B after anesthesia. Blood samples were also drawn for hemato-chemical analysis in both groups. The necropsy of the dead animals was also done for internal organs and skeletal muscles examination. <strong>Results:</strong> In the group A, two chinkaras and two spotted deer were found dead at the time of release. The pale areas, hemorrhages and clotted blood were observed in necropsy. The values of Hemoglobin, Total Erythrocyte Count and Packed Cell Volume were moderately varied from the normal in both groups. The group A had greater lymphocyte count and lower neutrophils while in group B, lymphocyte count was lower, neutrophils were higher and Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), and cortisol levels were quite higher than normal. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Vitamin E and Selenium has positive impact to reduce stress level in translocation of captive ungulates.</p> Muhammad Azhar, Bushra Nisar Khan, Khola Andleeb, Arshia Mukhtar, Mah Noor Fatima, Saba Asghar, Muhammad Rizwan Khan, Aneela Anwar, Muhammad Talha Mukhtar Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1065 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of Type 2 Diabetes Patients of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for CDKAL1 Variant (rs10946398) https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1050 <p>Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder influenced by environmental and genetic factors, with varied genetic predispositions across populations. Research on T2DM's genetic risk factors in the Pakistani community is limited. <strong>Objective:</strong> To explore the association between the <em>CDKAL1</em> gene variant (rs10946398) and T2DM in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa population in Pakistan. <strong>Methods: </strong>The study involved 100 T2DM patients and 100 controls, matched by age and gender, following specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sociodemographic data were collected alongside 3ml of whole blood for DNA extraction. The <em>CDKAL1</em> gene was analyzed using PCR-based Sequence Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and the data were processed with SPSS version 26.0s. <strong>Results: </strong>Findings showed that 47% of cases were aged 39 to 59, with 94% having a family history of T2DM and 85% leading a sedentary lifestyle. A significant association was observed between the <em>CDKAL1</em> rs10946398 variant and T2DM. The GC variant was linked to a fourfold increase in risk (OR: 4.833, CI: 1.197-19.509, P=0.027), and the CC variant had a twofold association (OR: 2.788, CI: 1.545-5.033, P=0.001). These associations persisted after adjusting for family history, age, socioeconomic factors, exercise, and diet. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The study identified a significant correlation between the <em>CDKAL1</em> rs10946398 variants and T2DM susceptibility in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa population, emphasizing the role of genetic factors in the disease's prevalence within this community.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Maqsood Ali, Haji Bahadar, Haseenullah Shah, Sajjad Afridi, Sajid Ali, Kiran Ijaz, Fazli Khuda, Hamayun Khan, Mohsin Raziq, . Zakiullah Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1050 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Food Allergy: Current and Future Treatment Approaches https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1054 <p>Human gut is abundantly populated with different immune cells responsible for protection against antigens entering the host through oral routes. It is perfectly developed to induce immunity against pathogenic antigens by maintaining non-responsiveness or immune tolerance against non-pathogenic antigens. A disruption in immune tolerance resulting in allergic reactions to different food items falls under the term food allergy. It affects different body organs such as gastrointestinal tract, skin, eyes and respiratory system. Food allergy is generally categorized into IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated food allergy. Food allergy is a global health concern affecting about 10% of children worldwide. According to the studies carried out in different western countries, the prevalence of food allergy in children under 5 years age in UK, Denmark and Norway is found to be 4%, 3.6% and 6.8% respectively. The increasing prevalence of food allergy has drawn our attention towards the significance of effective and safe therapeutic strategies for food allergy. Current treatments include gene therapy, probiotics, allergen-specific and non-specific immunotherapy, and anti-IgE therapy. Gene therapy for food sensitization is characterized by adenoviral vector mediated transfer of gene encoding omalizumab to provide lifelong immunity to the allergic reactions caused by food. The idea of using probiotics revolves around promoting the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with healthy gut bacteria significantly reducing the IgE mediated food sensitization. In allergen specific immunotherapy, patients are frequently exposed to food containing increased doses of allergen causing food desensitization. For this purpose, approaches involving different administrative routes such as oral, sublingual and cutaneous immunotherapy are employed. In contrast, therapies involving anti-IgE, cellular targets, Toll like receptors and cytokines fall under the category of allergen non-specific immunotherapy. Despite the availability of treatment strategies, many challenges regarding the side effects and un-intended immune response associated with immunotherapies, that can pose safety concerns for patients. Due to high cost, not all individuals have the access to such therapies prohibiting them from availing advanced healthcare support. These challenges need to be addressed and require further research along with the collaboration of clinicians, researchers and regulatory authorities so the lifestyle of the individuals affected by food allergies can be improved.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Riffat Mehboob Copyright (c) 2024 Pakistan BioMedical Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pakistanbmj.com/journal/index.php/pbmj/article/view/1054 Sun, 31 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000