SONOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF PRIMARY INFERTILITY IN WOMEN HAVING PCOS
Sonographic Assessment of PCOS Infertility in Women
Keywords:PCOS, Ultrasonography, Infertility
PCOS are the major source of infertility in women all over the world. This pattern is common in young women. Objective: To find the primary gravidity in women having polycystic ovarian disease by Ultrasonography assessment. Methods: In this systematic review data published by Google Scholar, Medline, science direct, pub med, and the obsgyn online library that was requested to be published between 2004 and 2016 using certain MeSH terms. In this methodical study composition, we analyzed 10 cross-sectional studies for the collection of data. Results: 10 studies conducted between the years 2004 to 2016 were included in this systematic review. The total sample size was 1863 women age between 18 and 45 years. In this study, Ovulatory Disorders are the major leading cause of infertility in women. Polycystic ovarian disease is related with 75% of the causes of ovulatory infertility. The infertility range is 2 to 5%. Polycystic ovarian disease is the commonest endocrine disorder, affecting 6.6% to 8% of the women of child bearing age. Half of women with polycystic ovarian disease are obese. Hirsutism, menstrual irregularities, acne and gravidity have been shown to be the most depressing symptoms in adults with PCOS. Ultrasound is the only modality for the diagnosis of PCOS, Polycystic morphology revealed the existence of follicle measuring 2 to 9 mm in diameter. The sight of less than and equal to ≥ 12 follicles are seen in each ovary, full number of follicle per ovary scaling 2 to 9 mm in fringe and accelerated ovarian volume is about greater than three centimetre per cube (> 10 cm3). Conclusions: From this methodical review, we conclude that ovulatory stimulation is a major cause of major gravidity. PCOS is associated with 75% of the causes of an ovulatory. PCOS are the commonest endocrine disorder, influence 6.6 to 8% of the women at child bearing age. On ultrasound the sight is less than and equal to 12 follicles are seen in each ovary measuring 2 to 9 mm in diameter with the volume of greater than ten centimetre per cube (>10 cm3).
Ombelet W, Cooke I, Dyer S, Serour G, Devroey P. Infertility and the provision of infertility medical services in developing countries. Human Reproduction Update. 2008 Dec; 14(6):605-21. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmn042
Shaheen R, Subhan F, Sultan S, Subhan K, Tahir F. Prevalence of infertility in a cross section of Pakistani population. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 2010 Aug; 42(4).
Azziz R, Woods KS, Reyna R, Key TJ, Knochenhauer ES, Yildiz BO. The prevalence and features of the polycystic ovary syndrome in an unselected population. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2004 Jun; 89(6):2745-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2003-032046
Kousta E, White DM, Franks S. Modern use of clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation. Human Reproduction Update. 1997 Aug; 3(4):359-65. doi: 10.1093/humupd/3.4.359
Knochenhauer ES, Key TJ, Kahsar-Miller M, Waggoner W, Boots LR, Azziz R. Prevalence of the polycystic ovary syndrome in unselected black and white women of the southeastern United States: a prospective study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1998 Sep; 83(9):3078-82. doi: 10.1210/jcem.83.9.5090
Pagotto U, Gambineri A, Vicennati V, Heiman ML, Tschöp M, Pasquali R. Plasma ghrelin, obesity, and the polycystic ovary syndrome: correlation with insulin resistance and androgen levels. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2002 Dec; 87(12):5625-9. doi: 10.1210/jc.2002-020776
Norman RJ, Masters L, Milner CR, Wang JX, Davies MJ. Relative risk of conversion from normoglycaemia to impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Human Reproduction. 2001 Sep; 16(9):1995-8. doi: 10.1093/humrep/16.9.1995
Kitzinger C and Willmott J. 'The thief of womanhood': women's experience of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Social Science and Medicine. 2002 Feb; 54(3):349-61. doi: 10.1016/s0277-9536(01)00034-x
Balen AH, Laven JS, Tan SL, Dewailly D. Ultrasound assessment of the polycystic ovary: international consensus definitions. Human Reproduction Update. 2003 Dec; 9(6):505-14. doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmg044
Battaglia C, Artini PG, Genazzani AD, Gremigni R, Salvatori M, Sgherzi MR, et al. Color Doppler analysis in oligo- and amenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecological Endocrinology. 1997 Apr; 11(2):105-10. doi: 10.3109/09513599709152520
Pache TD, Wladimiroff JW, Hop WC, Fauser BC. How to discriminate between normal and polycystic ovaries: transvaginal US study. Radiology. 1992 May; 183(2):421-3. doi: 10.1148/radiology.183.2.1561343
Teede HJ, Misso ML, Costello MF, Dokras A, Laven J, Moran L, et al. Recommendations from the international evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction. 2018 Sep; 33(9):1602-1618. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dey256
Sujata K and Swoyam S. 2D and 3D Trans-vaginal Sonography to Determine Cut-offs for Ovarian Volume and Follicle Number per Ovary for Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Indian Women. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility. 2018 Sep; 19(3):146-151
Hussein B and Alalaf S. Prevalence and characteristics of polycystic ovarian syndrome in a sample of infertile Kurdish women attending IVF infertility center in maternity teaching hospital of Erbil City. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2013 Aug; 2013. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2013.37104
Al-Azemi M, Omu FE, Omu AE. The effect of obesity on the outcome of infertility management in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2004 Dec; 270(4):205-10. doi: 10.1007/s00404-003-0537-2
Haq F, Aftab O, Rizvi J. Clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Journal of College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2007 Feb; 17(2):76-80
Alnakash AH and Al-Tae e NK. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: the correlation between the LH/FSH ratio and disease manifestations. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2007; 12(1):35.
Jonard S, Robert Y, Cortet-Rudelli C, Pigny P, Decanter C, Dewailly D. Ultrasound examination of polycystic ovaries: is it worth counting the follicles? Human Reproduction. 2003 Mar; 18(3):598-603. doi: 10.1093/humrep/deg115
Guraya SS. Prevalence and ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries in young unmarried Saudi females. Journal of Microscopy and ultrastructure. 2013 Jun; 1(1-2):30-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jmau.2013.06.002
Haq F and Rizvi J. Infertility and polycystic ovarian syndrome: a study of association between body mass index and intrafamily marriages. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation. 2008; 65(4):269-74. doi: 10.1159/000113309
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan BioMedical Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments firstname.lastname@example.org