The Association of Covid-19 Outbreak with Cancer Patients

Association of COVID-19 Outbreak with Cancer Patients


  • Wardha Ghaffar University Institute of Medical Lab Technology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Maha Noor University Institute of Medical Lab Technology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Parsikla Akram University Institute of Medical Lab Technology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • shehla javaid University Institute of Medical Lab Technology, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan



SARS-COV-2, COVID-19, Cancer, RAAS, Spike proteins


SARS-CoV-2 was perceived in China which forms a pandemic within weeks and affected the whole world population. Unfortunately, some people who were already suffering from cancer were affected severely and had more disease severity. COVID-19 badly affected cancer diagnosis and treatment resulting in increased mortality rate. A major issue that cancer patients had to face was a lack of access to necessary health care. The “Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)” plays a role in cancer development, it was observed that COVID-19 affects the functioning of RAAS by affecting the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme -2 (ACE-2) receptor with the assistance of spike proteins to gain entrance into the cells. It was proved that the ACE 2 receptor is a major link between cancer and COVID-19.  Cancer patients are very sensitive to COVID-19 due to “macrophages”. Macrophages induce inflammatory responses in both cancer and COVID-19 patients. It was also observed that COVID-19 may create a microenvironment for cancer development by increasing the activation of macrophages, and neutrophils as well as causing the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines.


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How to Cite

Ghaffar, W. ., Noor, M., Akram, P. ., & javaid, shehla. (2022). The Association of Covid-19 Outbreak with Cancer Patients: Association of COVID-19 Outbreak with Cancer Patients. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(5), 38–43.



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