The Effects of Resistance Training For 12 Weeks on Serum Calcium, Phosphorous and Parathyroid Hormone Levels of Urban and Rural Children
The Effects of Resistance Training on Hormone Levels
Keywords:Key Words: - Effects, resistance training, mineral content, bone, children, boys.
Resistance Training (RT) is considered as an integral component of a comprehensive physical activity program for children and healthy adults and has shown to be an important component for the development of bone strength by improving their muscular power, nerve conduction, and deposition of minerals and maintenance of body balance. Objective: To determine the effects of resistance training on the mineral content of bone in children aged 11-14 years boys. Methods: Volunteer young boys between the ages of 11 to 14 years, 30 each from rural and urban setting of district Peshawar were recruited. Calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and anthropometric parameters were measured before and after three months of resistance training. Paired sample t-test was used for changes over time. Results: The study found that there was a significant effect of resistance exercise on participant’s serum calcium level (8.44± 0.582 vs. 10.24± 0.786, p value<0.001), phosphorous (3.82± 0.265 vs. 4.59± 0.271, p value<0.001) and PTH (20.37± 4.620 vs. 29.20± 6.099, p value<0.001) in experimental group. Conclusions: Resistance training has an effective role in the increase of calcium, phosphorus and PTH and anthropometric measurements
Bradney M, Pearce G, Naughton G, Sullivan C, Bass S, Beck T et al. Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: a controlled prospective study. J Bone Miner Res. 1998 Dec;13(12):1814-21. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.1918.104.22.1684.
Faigenbaum AD. State of the art reviews: Resistance training for children and adolescents: Are there health outcomes?. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2007 May;1(3):190-200. doi.org/10.1177/1559827606296814.
Milteer RM, Ginsburg KR; Council on Communications And Media; Committee On Psychosocial Aspects Of Child And Family Health. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty. Pediatrics. 2012 Jan;129(1):e204-13. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2953.
Lloyd T, Andon MB, Rollings N, Martel JK, Landis JR, Demers LM et al. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. JAMA. 1993 Aug 18;270(7):841-4.
Lane NE. Epidemiology, etiology, and diagnosis of osteoporosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;194(2 Suppl):S3-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.08.047.
Patterson-Kane JC, Firth EC. Physiology, and Adaptations to Exercise and Training. The Athletic Horse: principles and practice of equine sports medicine. 2013 Jun 6:202.
Smith SM, Heer MA, Shackelford LC, Sibonga JD, Ploutz-Snyder L, Zwart SR. Benefits for bone from resistance exercise and nutrition in long-duration spaceflight: Evidence from biochemistry and densitometry. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Sep;27(9):1896-906. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.1647.
Rittweger J, Beller G, Ehrig J, Jung C, Koch U, Ramolla J et al. Bone-muscle strength indices for the human lower leg. Bone. 2000 Aug;27(2):319-26. doi: 10.1016/s8756-3282(00)00327-6.
Berndt T, Thomas LF, Craig TA, Sommer S, Li X, Bergstralh EJ et al. Evidence for a signaling axis by which intestinal phosphate rapidly modulates renal phosphate reabsorption. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jun 26;104(26):11085-90. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0704446104.
Takeda E, Taketani Y, Sawada N, Sato T, Yamamoto H. The regulation and function of phosphate in the human body. Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):345-55. doi: 10.1002/biof.552210167.
Farrow EG, White KE. Recent advances in renal phosphate handling. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010 Apr;6(4):207-17. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2010.17.
Maïmoun L, Simar D, Caillaud C, Peruchon E, Sultan C, Rossi M et al. Effect of antioxidants and exercise on bone metabolism. J Sports Sci. 2008 Feb 1;26(3):251-8. doi: 10.1080/02640410701501689.
Walters P. Muscular Strength Assessment and Training. Christian Paths to Health and Wellness. 2013 Mar 26:107.
Sundberg M, Düppe H, Gärdsell P, Johnell O, Ornstein E, Sernbo I. Bone mineral density in adolescents. Higher values in a rural area--a population-based study of 246 subjects in southern Sweden. Acta Orthop Scand. 1997 Oct;68(5):456-60. doi: 10.3109/17453679708996262.
Gordon-Larsen P, McMurray RG, Popkin BM. Determinants of adolescent physical activity and inactivity patterns. Pediatrics. 2000 Jun;105(6):E83. doi: 10.1542/peds.105.6.e83.
Diaz-Curiel M. Effects of Exercise on Osteoporosis, Advanced Osteoporosis Treatment, Alternative Treatment of Osteoporosis, Primary Osteoporosis. Journal of Osteoporosis and Physical Activity. 2013 Jan 21.
Haapasalo H, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Heinonen A, Oja P, Vuori I. Long-term unilateral loading and bone mineral density and content in female squash players. Calcif Tissue Int. 1994 Apr;54(4):249-55. doi: 10.1007/BF00295946.
Khodkaran MH, Hosseini A, Ghasemi A. Effect of resistance training and intake of calcium and phosphorous on bone density of the nonathletic adolescents. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2014;4(5):72-5.
Welch JM, Weaver CM. Calcium and exercise affect the growing skeleton. Nutrition reviews. 2005 Nov 1;63(11):361-73. doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2005.tb00373.x.
Karakukcu C, Polat Y, Torun YA, Pac AK. The effects of acute and regular exercise on calcium, phosphorus and trace elements in young amateur boxers. Clin Lab. 2013;59(5-6):557-62. doi: 10.7754/clin.lab.2012.120505.
Barry DW, Kohrt WM. Acute effects of 2 hours of moderate-intensity cycling on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium. Calcified Tissue International. 2007 Jun;80(6):359-65. doi.org/10.1007/s00223-007-9028-y.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan BioMedical Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments firstname.lastname@example.org