Monkeypox and its Outbreak

Authors

  • Ayesha Riaz GC Women University Faisalabad

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i8.792

Abstract

Given that it spreads around the world and not just in nations in west and central Africa, monkey pox is a disease of worldwide public health significance. An uncommon condition known as monkey pox is brought on by infection with the monkey pox virus. The virus that causes monkey pox is related to the virus that causes smallpox, or variola virus. Smallpox symptoms are comparable to those of monkey pox, although they are less severe, and monkey pox seldom results in death. Monkey pox has replaced smallpox as the most significant orthopoxvirus for public health since smallpox was eradicated and smallpox vaccinations were subsequently discontinued. Primarily occurring in tropical rainforests in central and west Africa, monkey pox has been steadily spreading into cities. Numerous rodent species and non-human primates serve as hosts for animals. Outside of the African nations where monkey pox is widespread, the United States saw an epidemic. Boston, Massachusetts, recorded the first case. The first monkey pox epidemic outside of Africa occurred in the United States and contact with sick pet prairie dogs was to blame. Fever, chills, swollen lymph nodes, exhaustion, muscle and backaches, headaches, and respiratory problems are some of the signs and symptoms of monkey pox (e.g. sore throat, nasal congestion, or cough). Multiple instances of monkey pox were discovered in numerous non-endemic nations.  Studies are being conducted right now to learn more about the epidemiology, sources of illness, and patterns of transmission. Direct contact with the blood, body fluids, cutaneous or mucosal lesions of infected animals can result in animal-to-human (zoonotic) transfer. Numerous animals in Africa, including rope squirrels, tree squirrels, Gambian pouched rats, dormice, several kinds of monkeys, and others, have shown signs of infection with the monkey pox virus. Although rodents are most probable, the natural reservoir of monkey pox has not yet been discovered. Eating undercooked meat and other diseased animal products is a potential risk factor.  People who live in or close to forests may be indirectly or minimally exposed to diseased animals. Close contact with respiratory secretions, skin sores on an infected person, or recently contaminated objects can cause human-to-human transmission. Monkey pox typically takes 6 to 13 days to incubate, but it can take anywhere from 5 to 21 days for symptoms to appear. Other rash disorders, such as chickenpox, measles, bacterial skin infections, scabies, syphilis, and medication-associated allergies, must be taken into account when making a clinical differential diagnosis. As a clinical characteristic, lymphadenopathy during the prodromal stage of the illness can help differentiate monkey pox from chickenpox or smallpox. Given its precision and sensitivity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the primary laboratory test. Fluids and food should be provided to patients in order to maintain a healthy nutritional condition. Multiple observational studies have shown that the smallpox vaccine is around 85% effective at preventing monkey pox. The major preventative method for monkey pox is increasing public knowledge of risk factors and teaching individuals about the steps they may take to lessen viral exposure. The feasibility and suitability of vaccination for the prevention and control of monkey pox are now being evaluated through scientific investigations. Some nations have policies in place or are creating them to provide vaccines to those who may be at risk, including laboratory staff, members of quick reaction teams, and healthcare professionals.

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Published

2022-08-31

How to Cite

Riaz, A. . (2022). Monkeypox and its Outbreak. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(8), 02–02. https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i8.792

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Section

Guest Editorial