Microbial Degradation of Industrially Important Textile Dyes

Microbial Degradation of Industrially Important Textile Dyes


  • Mehroz Farhan Department of Biotechnology, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan




Textile Dyes, Microbial Degradation, Waste water, Toxicity


The high demand for dyes in the paper, cosmetic, clothing, leather, and food industries drives up the use of dyes as a result of industrialization. As a result, wastewater production from dye manufacturing activities will rise. The presence of dyes and their structural compounds in wastewater from industrial sources place humans, animals and plants lives at risk. Synthetic dyes are more challenging to decolorize because they are more resistant to chemical and physical remediation than natural dyes. Microbial degradation has been investigated and checked mainly to speed up dye degradation. This paper discusses types of textile dyes and its biodegradation from a scientific and technological standpoint. It also compiles data on the factors that influence dye(s) biodegradation, the role of microbial species in the dye(s) degradation process, and future research directions in this field.


Benkhaya S, M'rabet S, El Harfi A. Classifications, properties, recent synthesis and applications of azo dyes. Heliyon. 2020 Jan; 6(1):e03271. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03271.

Guo G, Tian F, Zhao Y, Tang M, Liu W, Liu C, et al. Aerobic decolorization and detoxification of Acid Scarlet GR by a newly isolated salt-tolerant yeast strain Galactomyces geotrichum GG. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 2019 Nov; 145:104818. doi: 10.1016/j.ibiod.2019.104818

Hicham Z, Bencheqroun Z, El Mrabet I, Neves I. Removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto Moroccan clay (Fez city). Mediterranean Journal of Chemistry. 2019 May; 8(3):158-67. doi: 10.13171/mjc8319050803hz

Dong H, Guo T, Zhang W, Ying H, Wang P, Wang Y, et al. Biochemical characterization of a novel azoreductase from Streptomyces sp.: Application in eco-friendly decolorization of azo dye wastewater. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2019 Nov; 140:1037-1046. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.08.196.

Ajaz M, Shakeel S, Rehman A. Microbial use for azo dye degradation-a strategy for dye bioremediation. International Microbiology. 2020 May; 23(2):149-159. doi: 10.1007/s10123-019-00103-2.

Crini G and Lichtfouse E. Advantages and disadvantages of techniques used for wastewater treatment. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 2019 Mar; 17:145-155. doi.org/10.1007/s10311-018-0785-9

Roy DC, Biswas SK, Saha AK, Sikdar B, Rahman M, Roy AK, et al. Biodegradation of Crystal Violet dye by bacteria isolated from textile industry effluents. PeerJ. 2018 Jun; 6:e5015. doi: 10.7717/peerj.5015.

Mandal T, Dasgupta D, Datta S. A biotechnological thrive on COD and chromium removal from leather industrial wastewater by the isolated microorganisms. Desalination and Water Treatment. 2012 Aug; 13:382-392. doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2010.996.

Al-Amrani WA, Lim P-E, Seng C-E, Ngah WSW. Factors affecting bio-decolorization of azo dyes and COD removal in anoxic–aerobic REACT operated sequencing batch reactor. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 2014 Mar; 45:609-616. doi: 10.1016/j.jtice.2013.06.032

Fatima M, Farooq R, Lindström RW, Saeed M. A review on biocatalytic decomposition of azo dyes and electrons recovery. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2017 Nov; 246:275-81. doi: 10.1016/j.molliq.2017.09.063

Sabnis RW. The Gewald reaction in dye chemistry. Coloration Technology. 2016 Jan; 132: 49-82. doi: 10.1111/cote.12182

Farouk R, Gaffer HE. Simultaneous dyeing and antibacterial finishing for cotton cellulose using a new reactive dye. Carbohydrate polymers. 2013 Aug; 97(1):138-42. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.04.037

Božič M, Kokol V. Ecological alternatives to the reduction and oxidation processes in dyeing with vat and sulphur dyes. Dyes and Pigments. 2008 Jan; 76(2):299-309. doi: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2006.05.041

Bhatia SC, Devraj S. Pollution control in textile industry. WPI publishing; 2017 Oct. doi: 10.1201/9781315148588

Muthu SS, editor. Sustainability in the textile industry. Singapore: Springer; 2017. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-2639-3

Imran M, Crowley DE, Khalid A, Hussain S, Mumtaz MW, Arshad M. Microbial biotechnology for decolorization of textile wastewaters. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology. 2015 Mar; 14(1):73-92. doi: 10.1007/s11157-014-9344-4

Vikrant K, Giri BS, Raza N, Roy K, Kim KH, Rai BN, et al. Recent advancements in bioremediation of dye: current status and challenges. Bioresource technology. 2018 Apr; 253:355-67. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.029

Khan S and Malik A. Toxicity evaluation of textile effluents and role of native soil bacterium in biodegradation of a textile dye. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018 Feb; 25(5):4446-58. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0783-7

Copaciu F, Opriş O, Coman V, Ristoiu D, Niinemets Ü, Copolovici L. Diffuse water pollution by anthraquinone and azo dyes in environment importantly alters foliage volatiles, carotenoids and physiology in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2013 Mar; 224(3):1-1. doi: 10.1007/s11270-013-1478-4

Paździor K, Wrębiak J, Klepacz-Smółka A, Gmurek M, Bilińska L, Kos L, Sójka-Ledakowicz J, Ledakowicz S. Influence of ozonation and biodegradation on toxicity of industrial textile wastewater. Journal of Environmental Management. 2017 Jun; 195:166-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.06.055

Das S and Dash HR. Handbook of metal-microbe interactions and bioremediation. CRC press; 2017 Apr. doi: 10.1201/9781315153353

Kandelbauer A and Guebitz GM. Bioremediation for the decolorization of textile dyes—a review. Environmental chemistry. 2005:269-88. doi: 10.1007/3-540-26531-7_26

Pereira L and Alves M. Dyes—environmental impact and remediation. InEnvironmental protection strategies for sustainable development. Springer, Dordrecht; 2012:111-162. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-1591-2_4

Joshi T, Iyengar L, Singh K, Garg S. Isolation, identification and application of novel bacterial consortium TJ-1 for the decolourization of structurally different azo dyes. Bioresource technology. 2008 Oct; 99(15):7115-21. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.074

Kishor R, Purchase D, Saratale GD, Ferreira LF, Bilal M, Iqbal HM, et al. Environment friendly degradation and detoxification of Congo red dye and textile industry wastewater by a newly isolated Bacillus cohnni (RKS9). Environmental Technology & Innovation. 2021 May; 22:101425. doi: 10.1016/j.eti.2021.101425

Unnikrishnan S, Khan MH, Ramalingam K. Dye-tolerant marine Acinetobacter baumannii-mediated biodegradation of reactive red. Water Science and Engineering. 2018 Oct; 11(4):265-75. doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2018.08.001

Humnabadkar RP, Saratale GD, Govindwar SP. Decolorization of purple 2R by Aspergillus ochraceus (NCIM-1146). Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences. 2008 Jan; 10(3):693-7.

Christian V, Shrivastava R, Shukla D, Modi HA, Vyas BR. Degradation of xenobiotic compounds by lignin-degrading white-rot fungi: enzymology and mechanisms involved. 2005; 43(4):301-312.

Pandi A, Kuppuswami GM, Ramudu KN, Palanivel S. A sustainable approach for degradation of leather dyes by a new fungal laccase. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019 Feb; 211:590-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.048

Vijayaraghavan K and Yun YS. Utilization of fermentation waste (Corynebacterium glutamicum) for biosorption of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2007 Mar ; 141(1):45-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.06.081

Yan H and Pan G. Increase in biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate by Closterium lunula using inorganic carbon. Chemosphere. 2004 Jun; 55(9):1281-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.12.019

Kurade MB, Waghmode TR, Khandare RV, Jeon BH, Govindwar SP. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile dye Disperse Red 54 by Brevibacillus laterosporus and determination of its metabolic fate. Journal of bioscience and bioengineering. 2016 Apr; 121(4):442-9. doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2015.08.014

Proskuryakova LN and Sivaev S. Recent trends and research strategies for treatment of water and wastewater in Russia. InWater Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations 2020 Jan; 119-138. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-818339-7.00006-0

Routoula E and Patwardhan SV. Degradation of anthraquinone dyes from effluents: a review focusing on enzymatic dye degradation with industrial potential. Environmental science & technology. 2020 Jan; 54(2):647-64. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b03737

Ihsanullah I, Jamal A, Ilyas M, Zubair M, Khan G, Atieh MA. Bioremediation of dyes: Current status and prospects. Journal of Water Process Engineering. 2020 Dec; 38:101680. doi: 10.1016/j.jwpe.2020.101680




How to Cite

Farhan, M. (2022). Microbial Degradation of Industrially Important Textile Dyes: Microbial Degradation of Industrially Important Textile Dyes. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(10), 09–13. https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i10.809



Review Article