Physical Inactivity and Health
Health is the measure of our body’s efficiency and over-all well-being. Health triangle consisting of physical, social, and mental health is a standard for many health aspects. Physical activity (PA) is any bodily movement that uses energy produced by the skeletal muscles. It is obvious that PA is important for both social and physical development. Physical inactivity has a large-scale detrimental influence on health-related concerns such as cardiovascular disease (including hypertension and stroke), hyperlipidemia, obesity, depression, and anxiety, which is the root of many non-communicable diseases. Approximately 60-85% of the world's population is unable to meet the minimum daily PA recommendation. It is estimated that 2 million people die each year because of physical inactivity. Insufficient activity increased by 5% (from 31.6-36.8%) in high-income countries between 2001 and 2016. Globally, 81% of adolescents aged 11-17 years were insufficiently physically active in 2016 . In Pakistan, levels of PA are far from adequate. Overall, sedentary lifestyle is prevalent, and 58.7% subjects had no or low PA in their routine daily lives. Medium-level PA was observed in 34.8% of male and 39.8% of female subjects .
Several benefits and risks are associated with physical activity. Regular physical exercise has been shown to aid in the prevention and management of noncommunicable illnesses. PA lowers the risk of some types of cancer. It can be used to control and treat type II diabetes (noninsulin-dependent), as well as to preserve bone density and reduce the risk of osteoporosis. It also aids in the prevention of hypertension, the maintenance of a healthy body, improvement of mental health and quality of life. Furthermore, PA has been used to maintain and increase weight and gives physical, social, emotional, and cognitive advantages. Promoting physical activity in the early stages of life is critical for children's and adults' healthy development. In Pakistan sedentary lifestyle is growing with rapid urbanization and modernization. Use of television, mobile and social media has increased. Number of sedentary jobs have raised in recent years and health is suffering because of all that inactivity. Several infectious and non-infectious diseases are prevailing within the population dye to physical inactivity. Following the global approach, healthy lifestyle and diet culture should be promoted in workplaces and households. Newest versions of research questionnaires and surveys used globally, need to be used in Pakistan. Different scales are needed to be devised and assessed contemplating socio-economic and geographic profile of Pakistan. National wide analysis of knowledge, attitude, and practice of is also recommended that will help stakeholders and government for taking adequate and direct initiatives for an ultimate healthy community.
World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic.
Habib MB, Nazeer MT, Mahfooz M, Safdar MS. Physical activity in Pakistani perspective: issues, implications, and recommendations. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2022 Apr; 72(2):322-8. doi: 10.47391/jpma.20-323
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