Effect of pH and Different Fermentation Time Intervals on the Production of Single Cell Proteins (SCPs) from Potato Peels

Production of Single Cell Proteins


  • Hira Nadeem Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan




Optimization, Biomass, Potato peels, pH, Fermentation Time


Dried cells of microorganisms such as fungi, algae, and bacteria, known as Single-Cell Proteins (SCPs), are utilized as a source of protein supplements in animal feed or human food. These SCPs can be produced through the use of low-cost feedstocks and waste materials as sources of carbon and energy, which can be converted into biomass and concentrated proteins. Objective: To optimize the yield and growth of dry cell biomass through the manipulation of fermentation conditions. Methods: A batch fermentation process was used to produce dry cell biomass from a microorganism. Different pH values, fermentation times, and reactor configurations were tested, and the resulting biomass was analyzed for its protein content. Results: The maximum yield of dry cell biomass was achieved at pH 4.5, with a yield of 1.951 g/100 ml. The maximum dry biomass was achieved after 72 hours of fermentation, with a yield of 2.824 g/100 ml. The maximum yield of dry biomass was achieved with an Airlift fermenter at an aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and a temperature of 35°C for 72 hours, resulting in a yield of 5.452 g/L. The protein content of the dried cell biomass was found to be in the range of 45-55%. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the yield and growth of dry cell biomass can be optimized by controlling the fermentation conditions, specifically pH, fermentation time, and reactor configuration. These findings may have implications for the industrial-scale production of dry cell biomass, as they offer insight into how to maximize yield and protein content.


Department of Economic and Social Affairs. World population projected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050. 2015. [Last cited: 20th Feb 2023]. Available from: https://www.un.org/en/desa/world-population-projected-reach-98-billion-2050-and-112-billion-2100.

Javed A, Ahmad A, Tahir A, Shabbir U, Nouman M, Hameed A. Potato peel waste—its nutraceutical, industrial and biotechnological applications. AIMS Agriculture and Food. 2019 Sep; 4(3): 807-823. doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2019.3.807.

Khan MK, Asif M, Razzaq ZU, Nazir A, Maan AA. Sustainable food industrial waste management through single cell protein production and characterization of protein enriched bread. Food Bioscience. 2022 Apr; 46: 101406. doi: 10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101406

Sheikh RA, Al-Bar OA, Soliman YM. Biochemical studies on the production of biofuel (bioethanol) from potato peels wastes by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects of fermentation periods and nitrogen source concentration. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 2016 May; 30(3): 497-505. doi: 10.1080/13102818.2016.1159527

Reihani SF and Khosravi-Darani K. Influencing factors on single-cell protein production by submerged fermentation: A review. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2019 Jan; 37: 34-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ejbt.2018.11.005

Ritala A, Häkkinen ST, Toivari M, Wiebe MG. Single cell protein—state-of-the-art, industrial landscape and patents 2001–2016. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2017 Oct; 8: 2009. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.02009

Sindhu R, Binod P, Pandey A. Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass–An overview. Bioresource Technology. 2016 Jan; 199: 76-82. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.08.030

Gaudino EC, Colletti A, Grillo G, Tabasso S, Cravotto G. Emerging processing technologies for the recovery of valuable bioactive compounds from potato peels. Foods. 2020 Nov; 9(11): 1598. doi: 10.3390/foods9111598

Sepelev I and Galoburda R. Industrial potato peel waste application in food production: a review. Research for Rural Development. 2015 May; 1: 130-6.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. World Agriculture: towards 2015/2030. 2002. [Last Cited: 20th Feb 2023]. Available at: https://www.fao.org/3/y3557e/y3557e00.pdf.

Delgado CL. Rising consumption of meat and milk in developing countries has created a new food revolution. The Journal of Nutrition. 2003 Nov; 133(11): 3907S-10S. doi: 10.1093/jn/133.11.3907S

Hernández-López A, Sanchez Felix DA, Zuñiga Sierra Z, Garcia Bravo I, Dinkova TD, Avila-Alejandre AX. Quantification of reducing sugars based on the qualitative technique of Benedict. ACS Omega. 2020 Dec; 5(50): 32403-10. doi: 10.1021/acsomega.0c04467

Sáez-Plaza P, Michałowski T, Navas MJ, Asuero AG, Wybraniec S. An overview of the Kjeldahl method of nitrogen determination. Part I. Early history, chemistry of the procedure, and titrimetric finish. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 2013 Oct; 43(4): 178-223. doi: 10.1080/10408347.2012.751786

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1951; 193: 265-75. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9258(19)52451-6

Qin G, Li G, Li P, Wang M, Hong X, Wang G. Optimization of fermentation process of exopolysaccharides from Rhizopus nigricans by response surface methodology. Mycosystema. 2019; 38(9): 1570-7.

Dinarvand M, Rezaee M, Foroughi M. Optimizing culture conditions for production of intra and extracellular inulinase and invertase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 by response surface methodology (RSM). Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2017 Jul; 48: 427-41. doi: 10.1016/j.bjm.2016.10.026

Carboué Q, Tranier MS, Perraud-Gaime I, Roussos S. Production of microbial enzymes by solid-state fermentation for food applications. InMicrobial enzyme technology in food applications 2017 Mar: 437-451. doi: 10.1201/9781315368405-28

Zhu M, Han Y, Hu X, Gong C, Ren L. Ergothioneine Production by Submerged Fermentation of a Medicinal Mushroom Panus conchatus. Fermentation. 2022 Aug; 8(9): 431. doi: 10.3390/fermentation8090431

Mondal AK, Sengupta S, Bhowal J, Bhattacharya DK. Utilization of fruit wastes in producing single cell protein. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology. 2012; 1(5): 430-8.

Ismail S. Production of Single Cell Proteins (SCP) by Cupriavidus necator: Impact of environmental parameters, carbon and nitrogen sources (Doctoral dissertation, INSA de Toulouse). 2022. Available at: https://theses.hal.science/tel-03718434/.




How to Cite

Nadeem, H. (2023). Effect of pH and Different Fermentation Time Intervals on the Production of Single Cell Proteins (SCPs) from Potato Peels: Production of Single Cell Proteins. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 6(02), 17–20. https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v6i02.848



Original Article