Diabetes Mellitus: Life Style, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

Dietary Management of Type II Diabetes

Authors

  • Minal Butt University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Huma Bader Ul Ain University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Tabussam Tufail University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Shahnai Basharat University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Zeenat Islam University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Baila Ahmad Department of Food Science and Technology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Sahar Imran University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Rabia Hussain University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Imran Food Nutrition and lifestyle Unit, King Fahad Medical Research Center, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i5.496

Abstract

In millennia, 40 million people were died with non-communicable diseases and diabetes is one of them. In diabetes, insulin secretions are not produced properly or resist to body and if it is not treated, it might cause death of all the organs. Researchers now seek the other therapies apart from medicinal, to manage diabetes with minimal side-effects and more efficacy. They are experimenting on herbs and therapeutic food that play role in disease or delay the progression of disease. Drugs in these days are very costly and may also have side effects. Different herbs may have a beneficial role in diabetes due to the active components involved in insulin resistance such as ‘myoinsoitol’.

Researchers are more interested in lifestyle in recent decades because it is importance for health [1]. People that follow an unhealthy lifestyle are in million. The dominant form of lifestyle that affects the unhealthy lifestyle is alcohol, drug abuse, malnutrition, stress, and unhealthy diet [2]. Unhealthy lifestyle may cause death, illness, disabilities, metabolic disease, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), skeletal diseases, diabetes, and hypertension [3]. The oldest disease known by man is probably diabetes which dates back to 3000 years ago, first reported in Egyptian [4,5]. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differentiation was made in 1936 [6]. In 1988 type 2 was defined as metabolic syndrome [7]. Defects in insulin secretion or action cause hyperglycemia and this group may cause metabolic disease and form diabetes mellitus. Failure of organs and body dysfunction may be caused by prolonged chronic hyperglycemia. Diabetes may be developed by several pathogenic processes [8]. Insulin resistance may be due to insulin deficiency or abnormalities and the destruction of the cells of the pancreas by an autoimmune disorder. Deficient action of insulin on target tissues may affect the fat carbohydrate and protein metabolism [9].

Deficiency of insulin may cause hyperglycemia by affecting the complex hormonal pathways by unknown mechanisms [10]. Beta cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas produces a hormone ‘insulin’ which regulates carbohydrate, fats and protein metabolism. Insulin is secreted from beta cells by glucagon but commonly by glucose. Hyperglycemia is caused when the balance of insulin and glucagon is disturbed [11]. In 5-10% subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes [12].         The β cells in the pancreas are destructed [13,14].

 In most patients, β-cell destruction varies as it may be increasing in some patients while slow in others. In children and adolescent’s ketoacidosis is the first stage of this disease. In other patients fasting hyperglycemia converts into a severe stage and in the presence of stress, the ketoacidosis is occurred [15,16]. Most of the patients depend on insulin for survival to prevent ketoacidosis because in these patients β-cell function is sufficient for the prevention of ketoacidosis [17].

In type 1 diabetes the pathogenesis is still unclear, there is no data on why the auto antibodies against work on islets cells hallmark [18,19]. Type 1 diabetes is most common in children or adolescents. Several environmental factors also cause diabetes apart from genetic predisposition [20,21], including Ljungan virus, viral infection, herpes virus, enterovirus, congenital rubella [22,23]. The autoimmune disease also occurs by different pollutants, low level of vitamin D, childhood infection, prenatal exposure to viruses [24]. These things may be controversial because in recent studies viral infection may cause the type 1 diabetes [25].

In type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia causes the insulin deficiency and is also known as non-insulin diabetes mellitus. It may be due to genetic, behavioral or environmental risk factors [26-28]. In poor developing countries like Africa, type 2 diabetes increased the morbidity and mortality due to the commonness and late diagnosis of this type of disease [29]. Type 2 diabetes is also associated with genetics and lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes mostly occur genetically as compared to type 1 diabetes [30]. Approximately, there are 90% chances of diabetes occurrence, if in monozygotic twins, one is affected with diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is also identified in type 2 diabetes, it is not like autoantibodies in   type 1 diabetes   and it occurs in 25 years of age [31,32]. The genetics of this disease are still unclear as some patients have mutations but never develop the disease, and others will develop clinical symptoms of MODY but have no identifiable mutation [33].

Diabetes may be devasting in the next years due to the obesity because obesity is more prevalent globally and due to this insulin resistance may occur. A lot of medicines are prescribed for the hyperglycemia but it also has so many side effects. There are a lot of nutraceuticals that are helpful in diabetes management and  most of the herbs have potential to lower the hyperglycemia and treat diabetes insulin resistance.

References

Ziglio E, Currie C, Rasmussen VB. The WHO cross-national study of health behavior in school aged children from 35 countries: findings from 2001–2002. J School Health,2004, 74 (6): 204– 206. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb07933.x.

WHO Services for prevention and management of genetic disorders and birth defect in developing countries (Farhud DD. As committee member) (WHO/HGN/WAOPB-D/99.1).2001 doi: 10.1159/000016212

Karimi M, Heidarnia A, Ghofranipur F. Effective factors on using medication in aging by using healthy believe. J Arak Med Uni.2010,14 (5); 70 78.doi: 10.2147/PPA.S151263.

Ahmed AM. History of diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med J 2002,23(4): 373-378.doi:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11953758/

Lakhtakia R. The history of diabetes mellitus. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2013,13(3):368-370. doi:10.12816/0003257

Patlak M. New weapons to combat an ancient disease: treating diabetes. FASEB J 2002,16(14):1853. doi/10.1096/fasebj.16.14.1853e.

Maitra A, Abbas AK. Endocrine system. In: Kumar V, Fausto N, AbbasAK (eds). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic basis of disease (7th ed). Philadelphia, Saunders;2005,1156-1226.doi: 10.4236/health.2015.713194.

Chen L, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ. The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus--present and future perspectives. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011,8(4):228-36. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.183.

Das SK, Elbein SC. The Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes. Cellscience. 2006,2(4):100-131. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2006.2-100.

Azevedo M, Alla S. Diabetes in sub-saharan Africa: kenya, mali,mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and zambia. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 2008,28(4):101-108. doi: 10.4103/0973-3930.45268

Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003,26 Suppl 1: S5-20. doi: 10.2337/diacare.26. 2007.s5.

Genuth S, Alberti KG, Bennett P, Buse J, Defronzo R, et al. Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2003,26(11):3160-7. doi: 10.2337/diacare.26.11.3160.

Carpenter MW, Coustan DR. Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 1982,144(7):768-73. doi: 10.1016/0002-9378(82)90349-0

Kaul K, Tarr JM, Ahmad SI, Kohner EM, Chibber R. Introduction to diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 2013,1-1. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.10.11.21264833

Klein BE, Klein R, Moss SE, Cruickshanks KJ. Parental history of diabetes in a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 1996,19(8):827-30. doi:I: 10.2337/diacare.19.8.827

Maahs DM, West NA, Lawrence JM, Mayer-Davis EJ Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2010, 39(3):481-97. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2010.05.011

Daneman D. Type 1 diabetes. Lancet. 2006,367:847–858. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68341-4

Devendra D, Liu E, Eisenbarth GS. Type 1 diabetes: recent developments. BMJ. 2004,328:750–754. doiI: 10.1136/bmj.328.7442.750

Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ, Saydah S, Imperatore G, Linder B, et al. Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009. JAMA. 2014,311:1778–1786. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.3201

Mellitus D. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care. 2005, 28(S37):S5-10.doi: 10.2337/diacare.28.suppl_1.s37

Pradhan AD, Rifai N, Buring JE, Ridker PM: Hemoglobin A1c predicts diabetes but not cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic women. Am J Med 2007,120: 720– 727 doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.03.022

Canivell S, Gomis R. Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Autoimmun Rev. 2014,13:403–407.doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.020

Vermeulen I, Weets I, Asanghanwa M, Ruige J, Van Gaal L, et al. Contribution of antibodies against IA-2β and zinc transporter 8 to classification of diabetes diagnosed under 40 years of age. Diabetes Care. 2011,34:1760–1765. doi: 10.2337/dc10-2268.

Couper J, Donaghue KC. Phases of diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009,10 Suppl 12:13–16. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2009.00574.x.

Ginsberg-Fellner F, Witt ME, Fedun B, Taub F, Dobersen MJ, et al. Diabetes mellitus and autoimmunity in patients with the congenital rubella syndrome. Rev Infect Dis. 1985,7 Suppl 1: S170–S176. doi: 10.1093/clinids/7.supplement_1.s170

Stene LC, Oikarinen S, Hyöty H, Barriga KJ, Norris JM, et al. Enterovirus infection and progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes: The Diabetes and Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) Diabetes. 2010,59:3174–3180. doi: 10.2337/db10-0866

Yeung WC, Rawlinson WD, Craig ME. Enterovirus infection and type 1 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational molecular studies. BMJ. 2011, 342: d35. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d35.

Hyppönen E, Läärä E, Reunanen A, Järvelin MR, Virtanen SM. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet. 2001, 358:1500–1503. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06580-1

Knip M, Virtanen SM, Seppä K, Ilonen J, Savilahti E, et al. Dietary intervention in infancy and later signs of beta-cell autoimmunity. N Engl J Med. 2010,363:1900–1908. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1004809.

Forlenza GP, Rewers M. The epidemic of type 1 diabetes: what is it telling us? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2011,18:248–251. DOI: 10.1097/MED.0b013e32834872ce

Ferreira RC, Guo H, Coulson RM, Smyth DJ, Pekalski ML, et al. A type I interferon transcriptional signature precedes autoimmunity in children genetically at risk for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2014,63:2538–2550. doi: 10.2337/db13-1777

Richardson SJ, Horwitz MS. Is type 1 diabetes “going viral”? Diabetes. 2014,63:2203–2205. doi: 10.2337/db13-1777

American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2014,37 Suppl 1: S81–S90POSITION STATEMENT| DECEMBER 16 2013. doi: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-S081

Downloads

Published

2022-05-31

How to Cite

Butt, M., Bader Ul Ain, H. ., Tufail, T. ., Basharat, S. ., Islam, Z. ., Ahmad, B. ., Imran, S. ., Hussain, R. ., & Imran, M. . (2022). Diabetes Mellitus: Life Style, Obesity and Insulin Resistance: Dietary Management of Type II Diabetes. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(5), 03–05. https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i5.496

Issue

Section

Letter To Editor

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>