Factors Contributing to Cervical Cancer Among Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Cervical Cancer Among Women


  • Zummorrad Khurshid Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore
  • Kabir Ozigi Abdullahi Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore
  • Kousar Parveen Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore
  • Sadia Khan The University of Lahore




Cervical Cancer, Prevalence of Cervical Cancer, Risk Factors.


Cervical cancer is among the top 10 most common cancers worldwide, and it is the third most common malignancy among women in Pakistan, with a reported incidence rate of 5.98%. Unprotected and early sex, low socioeconomic status, early menstrual cycles, multiparty relationships, HPV infection, co-infections, hormonally changed immune system, smoking, and low education level, among others are all risk factors associated with cervical cancer. Objective: The targeted objective of this review and meta-analysis was to identify how comprehension and attitude may impact on how frequently women utilize services for cervical cancer screening. Methods: The review of the literature was done using a variety of resources, including Google Scholar, PubMed, MEDLINE, and other databases. The keywords "incidence of cervical cancer in Pakistan," "prevalence of cervical cancer," and "risk factors of cervical cancer in Pakistan" were used. Results: From this literature review, following factors has been identified that are affecting cervical cancer development. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI), multiple sexual partners, marrying before age 18 years, multiple childbirths, Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCPs), smoking, obesity, nutritional and dietary factors, and low socioeconomic status. Conclusions: The burden of cervical carcinoma has increased as a result of the rising prevalence of the condition. Although Pakistan has a lower prevalence of cervix carcinoma than other western nations. Mortality rates are high as a result of inadequate awareness, poor follow-up, and late presentation of cervical malignancies.


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DOI: 10.54393/pbmj.v5i8.675
Published: 2022-08-31

How to Cite

Khurshid, Z. ., Ozigi Abdullahi, K. ., Parveen, K. ., & Khan, S. . (2022). Factors Contributing to Cervical Cancer Among Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Cervical Cancer Among Women. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 5(8), 72–76. https://doi.org/10.54393/pbmj.v5i8.675



Systematic Review