Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Male Transgenders in Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Lahore, Pakistan
Male Transgenders in Transmission of HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a subgroup of retrovirus causing HIV infection which if prolongs turns into a progressive failure of the immune system called as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is commonly prevalent in Male Transgenders who are born male and disobeys the cultural defined social norms and identify themselves as a female. The objective was to assess knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Transgender Community regarding Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Lahore, Pakistan. A Descriptive Cross-sectional Survey was conducted in Nine Towns of Lahore. A sample size of 79 was calculated and data was collected in duration of 9 months. A self-administered survey-based questionnaire was developed using WHO and National AIDS control Programme guidelines followed and pilot tested. Data was collected after Informed consent.The mean age of Respondents was 29.56 ± 8.27 years with minimum and maximum age as 19 and 50. In this study the mean knowledge score of the transgender about HIV Transmission was 2.804±0.32, the mean score of attitudes of transgender were 3.25±0.19 and the mean practice score was 2.931±0.28.Majority of the transgender have insufficient knowledge, and bad attitude towards their health. They have unsafe sexual practice and Drug Interventions playing a significant role in HIV epidemic. Majority of them are uneducated, unemployed and found sex selling and dancing an easiest way of earning. Their knowledge about HIV screening, transmission, and antiretroviral therapy is low.
Weiss RA. How does HIV cause AIDS? Science. 1993;260(5112):1273-9.
Douek DC, Roederer M, Koup RA. Emerging concepts in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. Annual review of medicine. 2009;60:471-484.
Ali A, Ali NS, Nasir U, Aadil M, Waqas N, Zil-E-Ali A, et al. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical and Dental Students towards HIV/AIDS in Pakistan. Cureus. 2018;10(4).
Monitoring GA. WHO Pakistan HIV Country Profile: 2017. 2017.
Khan AA, Rehan N, Qayyum K, Khan A. Correlates and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among Hijras (male transgenders) in Pakistan. International journal of STD & AIDS. 2008;19(12):817-820.
Cai Y, Wang Z, Lau JT, Li J, Ma T, Liu Y. Prevalence and associated factors of condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China. Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2016;19:20800.
Ganju D, Saggurti N. Stigma, violence and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in sex work in Maharashtra, India. Culture, health & sexuality. 2017;19(8):903-917.
Rajabali A, Khan S, Warraich HJ, Khanani MR, Ali SH. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan. The Lancet infectious diseases. 2008;8(8):511-515.
Coleman E, Bockting W, Botzer M, Cohen-Kettenis P, DeCuypere G, Feldman J, et al. Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender-nonconforming people, version 7. International journal of transgenderism. 2012;13(4):165-232.
Kalra G. Hijras: The unique transgender culture of India. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health. 2012;5(2):121-126.
HIV/AIDS JUNPo. Prevention gap report. Geneva: UNAIDS. 2016.
Rispel LC, Metcalf CA. Breaking the silence: South African HIV policies and the needs of men who have sex with men. Reproductive health matters. 2009;17(33):133-142.
UNAIDS. The gap report 2014. Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS. 2014.
Nemoto T, Bödeker B, Iwamoto M, Sakata M. Practices of receptive and insertive anal sex among transgender women in relation to partner types, sociocultural factors, and background variables. AIDS care. 2014;26(4):434-440.
Organization WH. Report of the Consultation on HIV, STI and Other Health Needs of Transgender People in Asia and the Pacific, Manila, Philippines, 11-13 September 2012. Manila: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2012.
Hoffman BR. Substance Use among Transgender Sex Workers. Transgender Sex Work and Society. 2018.
Lombardi EL, van Servellen G. Building culturally sensitive substance use prevention and treatment programs for transgendered populations. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2000;19(3):291-296.
IBBS HSIP. Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance In Pakistan. 2016-17.
Kakchapati S, Maharjan M, Rawal BB, Dixit SM. Social determinants and risk behaviors associated with prevalent Hepatitis C and HIV/HCV co-infection among male injection drug users in Nepal. Archives of Public Health. 2017;75(1):1-10.
Khan MNM, Sarwar G, Irfan SD, Gourab G, Rana AM, Khan SI. Understanding the Barriers of HIV Testing Services for Men Who Have Sex With Men and Transgender Women in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Study. International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 2021:0272684X21995672.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Pakistan BioMedical Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments email@example.com