Ultrasound Diagnosis and Risk Factors of 1st Trimester Complications in Pregnancy
Ultrasound Diagnosis and Risk Factors of 1st Trimester
Keywords:Pregnancy, 1st Trimester, Complication, Abortion
Ultrasound provides accurate gestational age and diagnosis of any complications. The complication can be due to nulliparity, aged females, and a history of abortion. The common complications of the first trimester are blighted ovum, ectopic pregnancy, and abortion. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine risk factors causing complications of pregnancy in the first trimester. Material and methodology: This retrospective study was performed with a sample size of 60 patients in 6 months from October-2022 to March-2022 calculated via convenient sampling technique by taking mean from previously published studies. This study was carried out at 3 private hospitals in Gujrat, Pakistan. An ultrasound machine (Aplio 300) was used to evaluate females with early pregnancy loss after informed consent. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 28. Frequency and percentages were mentioned for age groups, Obstetrical history, and ultrasound findings. Results: The most common complication in 1st trimester was incomplete abortion (29, 48.3%) following missed abortion 17(28.3%). The risk factors causing complications were gravidity, parity, abortions, fibroids, trauma, and molar pregnancy. The age group of 30-39 years has the maximum number of patients (30, 50%) diagnosed with complications. The common risk factor causing complication was due to age 30(50%), trauma 18(30%), gravidities were G4 (14, 23.3%) and G2 (10, 16.7%) and parity P1 (19 patients, 31.7%) and P2 (14 patients, 23.3%). Conclusion: In conclusion, the incidence of complication increased in nulliparous, aged females and decreased in females having less gravidity. Patients with a history of abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding were noticed to have a higher incidence of complications. Nulliparous and multiparous women having poor obstetrical history are at high risk. Transvaginal ultrasound is very effective in diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and missed abortion.
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