Role of Ultrasound and Color Doppler in Assessment of Thyroid Nodules
Ultrasound and colour doppler for thyroid nodules
Keywords:Thyroid nodules, Ultrasound, Colour Doppler, Solitary nodules, Multi-nodule goitre
Thyroid nodules, both macroscopic and microscopic, are widespread in the general population with up to 80% of people having them at autopsy. Ultrasonography is now widely available to diagnose thyroid nodules. Objective: To determine the role of ultrasound and colour doppler in assessment of thyroid nodule. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Aziz Bhatti Shaheed Teaching Hospital Gujrat, Pakistan from 1st February to 20th June, 2022. In this study total 70 patients with thyroid nodules were included who visited the hospital OPD with the complaint of neck pain and difficulty in swallowing. It included individuals with all ages of wither gender. People with the history of previous neck surgery were excluded. A linear high frequency transducer was used on Toshiba Aplio XG ultrasound machine. Data were analysed by SPSS version 22. Results: Total 70 patients were included in this study. Their age ranged from minimum 25 to maximum 74 with median age 47.50 years. As regard age, the mean age of study population was 46.057 ± 11.910. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound and color doppler. As regard ultrasound findings, we classified type of nodule as irregular nodule (n) 2.9%, left solitary nodule (n) 21.4%, right solitary nodule (n) 30.0%, isthmus nodule (n) 7.1%, multi-nodule goiter (n) 18.6%, bilateral nodule (n) 10.0%, heterogenous thyroid nodule (n) 7.1%, complex thyroid nodule (n) 2.9% were present. As regard color doppler flow present in (n) 32.9% and no flow seen in (n) 67.1%. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a rapid and secure way to evaluate thyroid nodules. It is the most accurate and cost-effective method for evaluating and monitoring thyroid nodules.
Gild ML, Chan M, Gajera J, Lurie B, Gandomkar Z, Clifton-Bligh RJ. Risk stratification of indeterminate thyroid nodules using ultrasound and machine learning algorithms. Clinical Endocrinology. 2022 Apr; 96(4):646-652. doi: 10.1111/cen.14612.
Parsa AA, Gharib H. Epidemiology of thyroid nodules. Thyroid nodules 2018. Humana Press, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-59474-3_1.
Russ G, Bonnema SJ, Erdogan MF, Durante C, Ngu R, Leenhardt L. European Thyroid Association Guidelines for Ultrasound Malignancy Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules in Adults: The EU-TIRADS. European Thyroid Journal. 2017 Sep; 6(5):225-237. doi: 10.1159/000478927.
Vanderpump MP. Epidemiology of thyroid disorders. The thyroid and its diseases 2019 (pp. 75-85). Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-72102-6_6.
Yoo WS, Choi HS, Cho SW, Moon JH, Kim KW, Park HJ, et al. The role of ultrasound findings in the management of thyroid nodules with atypia or follicular lesions of undetermined significance. Clinical Endocrinology. 2014 May; 80(5):735-42. doi: 10.1111/cen.12348.
Alexander EK, Cibas ES. Diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2022 Jul; 10(7):533-539. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00101-2.
Fresilli D, David E, Pacini P, Del Gaudio G, Dolcetti V, Lucarelli GT, et al. Thyroid Nodule Characterization: How to Assess the Malignancy Risk. Update of the Literature. Diagnostics (Basel). 2021 Jul; 11(8):1374. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics11081374.
Alexander EK, Doherty GM, Barletta JA. Management of thyroid nodules. Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2022 Jul; 10(7):540-548. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00139-5.
Karatay E, Javadov M. The role of ultrasound measurements and cosmetic scoring in evaluating the effectiveness of ethanol ablation in cystic thyroid nodules. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2021 Oct; 75(10):e14573. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.14573.
Pacella CM, Mauri G. Is there a role for minimally invasive thermal ablations in the treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules? International Journal of Hyperthermia. 2018 Aug; 34(5):636-638. doi: 10.1080/02656736.2018.1462537.
Durante C, Grani G, Lamartina L, Filetti S, Mandel SJ, Cooper DS. The Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules: A Review. JAMA. 2018 Mar; 319(9):914-924. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.0898.
Rajalakshmi AN, Begam F. Thyroid Hormones in the Human Body: A review. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2021 Sep 15;11(5):178-82.
Zhao WJ, Fu LR, Huang ZM, Zhu JQ, Ma BY. Effectiveness evaluation of computer-aided diagnosis system for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules on ultrasound: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Aug; 98(32):e16379. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000016379.
Welker MJ, Orlov D. Thyroid nodules. American Family Physician. 2003 Feb 1;67(3):559-66.
Wettasinghe MC, Rosairo S, Ratnatunga N, Wickramasinghe ND. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound characteristics in the identification of malignant thyroid nodules. BMC Research Notes. 2019 Apr; 12(1):193. doi: 10.1186/s13104-019-4235-y.
Yoon JH, Kim EK, Kwak JY, Park VY, Moon HJ. Application of Various Additional Imaging Techniques for Thyroid Ultrasound: Direct Comparison of Combined Various Elastography and Doppler Parameters to Gray-Scale Ultrasound in Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. 2018 Aug; 44(8):1679-1686. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.04.006.
Fisher SB, Perrier ND. The incidental thyroid nodule. CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2018 Mar; 68(2):97-105. doi: 10.3322/caac.21447.
Wong CKH, Liu X, Lang BHH. Cost-effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and watchful observation for incidental thyroid nodules. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2020 Nov;43(11):1645-1654. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01254-0.
Bahl M, Sosa JA, Nelson RC, Hoang JK. Imaging-detected incidental thyroid nodules that undergo surgery: a single-center experience over 1 year. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology. 2014 Dec; 35(11):2176-80. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A4004.
Kamran M, Hassan N, Ali M, Ahmad F, Shahzad S, Zehra N. Frequency of thyroid incidentalomas in Karachi population. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2014 Jul; 30(4):793-7. doi: 10.12669/pjms.304.4808.
Al SM, Varma SR, El KA, Ashekhi A, Kuduruthullah S, El KI. Incidental thyroid nodules an ultrasound screening of the neck region: prevalence & risk factors. Clinical Practice. 2018; 15(5):873-9.
Moifo B, Moulion Tapouh JR, Dongmo Fomekong S, Djomou F, Manka'a Wankie E. Ultrasonographic prevalence and characteristics of non-palpable thyroid incidentalomas in a hospital-based population in a sub-Saharan country. BMC Medical Imaging. 2017 Mar; 17(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s12880-017-0194-8.
Singh S, Singh A, Khanna AK. Thyroid incidentaloma. Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology. 2012 Sep; 3(3):173-81. doi: 10.1007/s13193-011-0098-y.
Palaniappan MK, Aiyappan SK, Ranga U. Role of Gray Scale, Color Doppler and Spectral Doppler in Differentiation Between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2016 Aug; 10(8):TC01-6. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/18459.8227.
Kassi GN, Evangelopoulou CC, Papapostolou KD, Karga HJ. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules with autoimmune thyroiditis. Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2022 Jun; 2359-3997000000483. doi: 10.20945/2359-3997000000483.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan BioMedical Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This is an open-access journal and all the published articles / items are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. For comments email@example.com