Relation between different grades of pterygium and amount of induced corneal astigmatism

Different grades of pterygium


  • Bilal Khan Department of Allied Health Sciences, Superior University, Lahore
  • Ahmed Sohail Department of Allied Health Sciences, Superior University, Lahore
  • Tallat Anwar Faridi Institute Of Public Health, FAHS, University Of Lahore, Lahore
  • Ubaidullah Jan Department of Allied Health Sciences, Superior University, Lahore
  • Fatima Zahid Department of Allied Health Sciences, Superior University, Lahore
  • Ishrat Parveen Department Of Zoology, University of The Punjab, Lahore



Pterygium and Astigmatism, Grades of pterygium, Amount of astigmatism


Pterygium is more prevalent among people exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. It occurs more often in people who live in warm climates and spend a lot of time outdoors in sunny or windy environments Objective: To determine and the relation of different grade of pterygium with amount of induced corneal astigmatism Methodology: This observational study was done in The Layton Rahmatulla Benevolent Trust (LRBT) hospital Multan road Lahore. A self-designed Performa was filled after clinically examining the patients. Frequency distribution/percentages of data were described, simple frequency tables and cross tables were formed to calculate the statistical results Results: A total patients 50 with grades of pterygium and induce amount of astigmatism.  There 31(62.0%) were male and 19(38.0%) were female and the mean age of the patient is 2.5. 21(42.0%) patients were grade 1 pterygium and 21(42.0%) patients were grade 2 and 8(16.0%) patents have grade 3 pterygium.  The amount of astigmatism in grade 1 from 0.00 to 1.00 DC is 17(34.0%) patients, from 1.00 to 2.00 DC are 2(4.0%) patients and from 2.00 to 4.00 DC are 2 (4.0%). In grade 2 from 1.00 to 2.00 DC are 10(20.0%) patients, from 2.00 to 4.00 DC are 10(20.0%) patients and from greater than 4.00 DC 1(2.0%). In grade 3 from 1.00 to 2.00 DC are 2(4.0%) patients, from 2.00 to 4.00 DC are 4(8.0%) patients and from greater than 4.00 DC are 2(4.0%) patients Conclusions: Result show that the present study verifies that as the pterygium reaches more than 1.00mm in size from the limbus it induce with the rule astigmatism and pterygium size increases, the amount of induced astigmatism also increases with direct proportion.


Shah SI, Shah SA, and Rai P, (2016). Factors associated with pterygium based on history and clinical examination of patients in Pakistan. J Curr Ophthalmol, 28(2): 91-2. doi: 10.1016/j.joco.2016.03.005

Oldenburg JB, et al., (1990). Conjunctival pterygia. Mechanism of corneal topographic changes. Cornea, 9(3): 200-204.

Gupta VP and Saxena T (2003). Comparison of single-drop mitomycin C regime with other mitomycin C regimes in pterygium surgery. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 51(1): 59.

Alpay A, Uğurbaş SH and Erdoğan B (2009). Comparing techniques for pterygium surgery. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ). 3: 69.

Kamil Z, Bokhari SA and Rizvi F, (2011). Comparison of conjunctival autograft and intra-operative application of mitomycin-C in treatment of primary pterygium. Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology, 27(4).

Taylor, H.R., et al., (1992). The long-term effects of visible light on the eye. Archives of ophthalmology, 110(1): 99-104. doi: 10.1001/archopht.1992.01080130101035

Kodavoor, S.K., et al., (2017). Double-head pterygium excision with modified vertically split-conjunctival autograft: Six-year long-term retrospective analysis. Indian journal of ophthalmology, 65(8): 700. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_284_17

De Keizer R, (1982). Pterygium excision with or without postoperative irradiation, a double-blind study. Documenta Ophthalmologica, 52(2): 309-315. doi: 10.1007/BF01675860

Alam A, et al., (2015). Comparison of pterygium resection with conjunctival auto graft versus amniotic membrane graft. Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology, 31(4).

Hansen A and Norn M, (1980). Astigmatism and surface phenomena in pterygium. Acta ophthalmologica, 58(2): 174-181. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.1980.tb05706.x

Yousuf M, (2005). Role of pterygium excision in pterygium induced astigmatism. JK-Practitioner, 12(2): 91-92.

Ergin A and Bozdoğan Ö, (2001). Study on tear function abnormality in pterygium. Ophthalmologica, 215(3): 204-208.

Jain AK and Pandey DJ, (2020). Evaluation of change in pterygium induced keratometric astigmatism in patients following pterygium excision with autologous graft surgery. Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology, 12(2): 191-200. doi: 10.3126/nepjoph.v12i2.28287

Mahar P and Manzar N, (2014). Risk factors involved in pterygium recurrence after surgical excision. Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology, 30(2).

Sharjeel M, Ali F and Malik IQ, (2016). Frequency of Pterygium Recurrence with Limbal Stem Cell Autograft. Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology, 32(4).

Anbesse DH, et al., (2017). Prevalence and associated factors of pterygium among adults living in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. PLOS ONE, 12(3): e0174450. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174450

Ang M, et al., (2012). Prevalence of and racial differences in pterygium: a multiethnic population study in Asians. Ophthalmology, 119(8): 1509-1515. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.02.009

Malekifar P, et al., (2017). Risk factors for pterygium in Ilam Province, Iran. Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research, 12(3): 270. doi: 10.4103/jovr.jovr_85_16

Gazzard G, et al., (2002). Pterygium in Indonesia: prevalence, severity and risk factors. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 86(12): 1341-1346. doi: 10.1136/bjo.86.12.1341

Yasar T, et al., (2003). Effects of fibrovascular traction and pooling of tears on corneal topographic changes induced by pterygium. Eye, 17(4): 492-496. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6700377

Han SB, et al., (2016). Quantification of astigmatism induced by pterygium using automated image analysis. Cornea, 35(3): 370-376. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000000728



DOI: 10.54393/pbmj.v4i2.74
Published: 2021-10-14

How to Cite

Khan, B., Sohail, A. ., Faridi, T. A. ., Jan, U. ., Zahid, F. ., & Parveen, I. . (2021). Relation between different grades of pterygium and amount of induced corneal astigmatism: Different grades of pterygium. Pakistan BioMedical Journal, 4(2), 59–63.



Original Article


Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2